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Notes on video lecture:
The Treaty of Westphalia as the Hinge of Modern History
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
regimes, Mughal, Bengal, Counter, wealth, Shah, interdependence, world, secular, chieftains, hinge, aware, 1640s, erode, interconnections
16th century complicated                                  between European and Indian powers
interconnections gave way to                               
from changing commodities with each other, they also became            of each other
began exporting slaves from Africa, deployed in the new colonies
slaves and colonies were used to create new levels of              which was used to change the relations with the rest of the world
a paradox at the heart of global history
in India, we witnessed the ways which the transformations began the slow                erosion of central authority in the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire had built up a compound machine that tied local                      and kingdoms to central Mughal authority
this began to            over the 17th century
new decentralized coalitions emerged between European power brokers and local power brokers at the expense of centralized              authority
gave rise to a steady state of warfare which eventually engulfed             , then the richest province of the Mughal Empire
1739: defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader         
Nader Shah saw himself as a latter-day Genghis Khan
sacked Dehli and carried away the emperors throne
the paradox was the way the new money and new concentrations of wealth shift the balances of power
favored new kinds of                in Europe
the struggle for power motivated the drive for new sources of wealth, a paradox which fueled the instability of the 17th century
brought the Spanish and the Portuguese into a struggle of religious orthodoxy
Europe's religious divisions
Protestants vs. Catholics
Reformation and                Reformation
1618-1648: Thirty Years War
spread of political violence
reached its high water marker in the           
Treaty of Westphalia
defined the political boundaries
buried the hatchet
then turned their sites to colonies in the new world
peace on the continent translated into war abroad
tensions resolved at home and began again abroad
led to mini            wars starting in the 1750s and, one might argue, do not really end until the end of the Cold War in 19989
in this way the treaty of Westphalia is a            in global history


eschew, v. to avoid or shun  "Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strived to unite far-flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to himself as an emperor who had near-divine status."


######################### (1542-1605)
Mughal Emperor from 1556 to 1605
  • the third and greatest ruler of the Mughal Dynasty in India
  • greatly expanded
  • established a centralized system of administration
  • adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects

Spelling Corrections:

Columbus and the New World
1500-1700 Indian Ocean Trading system
Da Gama, Pepper and World History
Portuguese Indian Ocean Empire
16th Century Colonialism Fueling European Violence
Global Food: European Sugar, Caribbean Plantations, African Slaves
16th and 17th Century Merchant Trading Companies
17th Century Interdependence of Trade and Investment
Francis Drake and Mercantilist Wars
The Apex and Erosion of the Mughal Empire
The Treaty of Westphalia as the Hinge of Modern History
The Influence of Silver on the Ming Dynasty
Political Reverberations of Ming Consolidation
18th China Resurgent as Qing Dynasty
18th Century Tea Trade, Leisure Time, and the Spread of Knowledge
Cook and Clive: Discoverers, Collectors and Conquerors of the Enlightenment
Strains on the Universality of the Enlightenment
The Enlightenment, Empire, and Colonization: Burke vs. Hastings
Enlightenment or Empire
18th Century Land Grabbing
The Industrial Revolution and the Transition of Non-Renewable Energy
The Seven Years' War and Colonial Revolutions
Napoleon, Spain, the Colonies, and Imperial Crises
Human Rights and the Meaning of Membership within Societies
Napoleon, New Nations, and Total War
The Ottoman Empire's 19th Century Tanzimat Reform
The Early 19th Century Market Revolution
The Global Upheavals of the Mid-19th Century
The Train, the Rifle, and the Industrial Revolution
Transition in India: Last of the Mughals
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 and Its Ramifications
Darwin's Effect on 19th Century Ideas
Factors Which Led to the Solidifying of Nation States
1868 Japan: The Meiji Restoration
1871: Germany Becomes a Nation
North American Nation-Building
19th Century Changing Concepts of Labor
The Benefits of Comparative Advantage
Migration after the Age of Revolutions
Creating 19th Century Global Free Trade
The Expanding 19th Century Capitalist System
The Second Industrial Revolution
The Closing of the American Frontier
Africa's Second Imperial Wave
Early 20th Century American Imperialism
1894-1905: Japan's Imperial Wave in Asia
Rashid Rida and 19th Century Islamic Modernization
19th Century Pan-Islam and Zionism Movements
19th Century Global Export-Led Growth
Indian Wars and Mass Slaughter of Bison
The Suez Canal's Effect on the Malayan Tiger
1890-1914: Savage Wars of Peace
1900-1909: Russian and Turkish Dynasties
1899-1911 The End of the Qing Dynasty
The 1910 Mexican Revolution
The Panic of 1907
Turn-of-the-Century Civilization and its Discontents
20th Century Questioning of Reason
Late 19th Century Anxieties of Race
The First World War
The End of WWI and the Attempt at Global Peace
The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919
The Wilson-Lenin Moment
1919 Self-Determination Movements in India
Post-WWI European Peace and Global Colonial Upheaval
1929 Economic Collapse
Changes in Capitalism between the Wars
1918-1945 Rethinking Economies