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Notes on video lecture:
Darwin's Effect on 19th Century Ideas
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Galapagos, propensities, creatures, debased, Indians, diversification, revolutionary, natural, 1839, lifetime, abolitionist, Edinburgh, Beagle, skulls, Descent, shocked, artifacts, global, racial, advisers, different, adaptation, earth, French
Charles Darwin
developed an early fascination with                history
educated at                    and Cambridge
                 encouraged him to explore his world
a world that was becoming both interconnected and interdependent
an example in which the worlds horizons were opening up
technological revolutions
             Revolution
advent of free trade
embarked on a five year journey
H.M.S.             
South America
                   Islands
Australia
gathered evidence of
fossils
marine invertebrate
fascinated by                    he gathered from various places in the world
a good observer of animal behavior
last book was a book about            worms
         The Voyage of the Beagle
on trip, he took notes and he doodled
1850 On the Origin of Species
note the singular origin to the plural species
he wanted to help explain                                in nature
variation and                      take place over time
concluded that insects became more speciated over time
they were not born different, they evolved to become different
1871 The                of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex
his major work
based on his                  of observation of
orchids
moths
animals from around the world
argued for a concept of human evolution and sexual selection
all humans are one species
all species share some fundamental                         
from common descent we get diversity
humans among other species belong to a single animal kingdom
"Man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy which feels for the most               , with benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creature, with his god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system, with all these exalted powers, man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin."
powerful and                            words
and you can imagine the brouhaha that would be produced by words such as these
this was a blow to theories about
living beings
humanity
             history
until Darwin came along, the prevailing dogma was that humans were fundamentally                   
different species obeyed different laws
people came from entirely different origins
this idea of a fundamental species differentiation among humans was a theory called pluralism
used phrenology to examine              to determine which race people belonged to
put negros at the bottom of the ladder of superiority and inferiority
people had to be kept in their places since they were meant to be separate
             argument for slavery
physical characteristics of people showed that we belonged to different races which should stay separate
along comes Charles Darwin
argued that the laws of natural selection applied to all                   
arguing for a different model
in his tree of life, humans all branch from a shared trunk
Africans,               , Europeans
it's often forgotten that he was a lifelong                          and a profound humanitarian and his science buttressed his moral code
he work in his journal The Voyage of Chronicle of the Beagle that he was                at the sight of slavery in Brazil and in South Africa

Ideas and Concepts:

How 19th century arguments for slavery were undercut by Darwin's theory of natural selection, via this morning's History Since 1300 class: "The prevailing social dogma of pre-Darwin Europe was that human races were fundamentally different, that each race had fundamentally different characteristics, came from different origins, obeyed different laws, and therefore each had a different place in the world. Pseudoscience such as phrenology was used to examine the skulls of various races to show that some races were more adept at being masters and other races more adept at being slaves, which naturally put negroes at the bottom of the ladder of superiority and inferiority, which was used an argument to justify the institution of slavery in places such as the Southern United States, Brazil, and South Africa. Then along came Charles Darwin who argued that the laws of natural selection applied to all creatures and that humans all branch from a shared trunk, showing that Africans, Indians, and Europeans did not come from different origins at all, but from the same origin, a theory which undermined the argument for slavery and was anathema to those who were benefiting economically and socially from the institution of slavery."
Pseudoscience of the day, via this morning's History Since 1300 class: "phrenology, n. from [φρήν] (mind) and [λόγος] (knowledge), a study primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules. Although both of those ideas have a basis in reality, phrenology extrapolated beyond empirical knowledge in a way that departed from science. Developed by German physician Franz Joseph Gall in 1796, the discipline was very popular in the 19th century, especially from about 1810 until 1840. Although now regarded as an obsolete amalgamation of primitive neuroanatomy with moral philosophy, phrenological thinking was influential in 19th-century psychiatry. Gall's assumption that character, thoughts, and emotions are located in specific parts of the brain is considered an important historical advance toward neuropsychology."
Columbus and the New World
1500-1700 Indian Ocean Trading system
Da Gama, Pepper and World History
Portuguese Indian Ocean Empire
16th Century Colonialism Fueling European Violence
Global Food: European Sugar, Caribbean Plantations, African Slaves
16th and 17th Century Merchant Trading Companies
17th Century Interdependence of Trade and Investment
Francis Drake and Mercantilist Wars
The Apex and Erosion of the Mughal Empire
The Treaty of Westphalia as the Hinge of Modern History
The Influence of Silver on the Ming Dynasty
Political Reverberations of Ming Consolidation
18th China Resurgent as Qing Dynasty
18th Century Tea Trade, Leisure Time, and the Spread of Knowledge
Cook and Clive: Discoverers, Collectors and Conquerors of the Enlightenment
Strains on the Universality of the Enlightenment
The Enlightenment, Empire, and Colonization: Burke vs. Hastings
Enlightenment or Empire
18th Century Land Grabbing
The Industrial Revolution and the Transition of Non-Renewable Energy
The Seven Years' War and Colonial Revolutions
Napoleon, Spain, the Colonies, and Imperial Crises
Human Rights and the Meaning of Membership within Societies
Napoleon, New Nations, and Total War
The Ottoman Empire's 19th Century Tanzimat Reform
The Early 19th Century Market Revolution
The Global Upheavals of the Mid-19th Century
The Train, the Rifle, and the Industrial Revolution
Transition in India: Last of the Mughals
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 and Its Ramifications
Darwin's Effect on 19th Century Ideas
Factors Which Led to the Solidifying of Nation States
1868 Japan: The Meiji Restoration
1871: Germany Becomes a Nation
North American Nation-Building
19th Century Changing Concepts of Labor
The Benefits of Comparative Advantage
Migration after the Age of Revolutions
Creating 19th Century Global Free Trade
The Expanding 19th Century Capitalist System
The Second Industrial Revolution
The Closing of the American Frontier
Africa's Second Imperial Wave
Early 20th Century American Imperialism
1894-1905: Japan's Imperial Wave in Asia
Rashid Rida and 19th Century Islamic Modernization
19th Century Pan-Islam and Zionism Movements
19th Century Global Export-Led Growth
Indian Wars and Mass Slaughter of Bison
The Suez Canal's Effect on the Malayan Tiger
1890-1914: Savage Wars of Peace
1900-1909: Russian and Turkish Dynasties
1899-1911 The End of the Qing Dynasty
The 1910 Mexican Revolution
The Panic of 1907
Turn-of-the-Century Civilization and its Discontents
20th Century Questioning of Reason
Late 19th Century Anxieties of Race
The First World War
The End of WWI and the Attempt at Global Peace
The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919
The Wilson-Lenin Moment
1919 Self-Determination Movements in India
Post-WWI European Peace and Global Colonial Upheaval
1929 Economic Collapse
Changes in Capitalism between the Wars