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Notes on video lecture:
The Enlightenment, Empire, and Colonization: Burke vs. Hastings
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
family, universal, Clive, empires, Bengal, juggernaut, obligation, escalating, corruptions, Burke, commensurate, Adam, monopoly, institutions, social, India, Pombal, reason, societies, languages, stock, recast, warfare, American, East
science of the 18th century
new laws of
economics
             sciences
it occurred to people that these sciences could be used to make                    more efficient than they had been
instead of these pellmell, piled- upon, amalgamations of ad hoc rules and practices that                      empires had invented and arrived at over the centuries
by the time they were in competition with each other
the empires were facing                      costs with not always                          rising returns
new laws of economics and social sciences
one realized that science could be used to change               
science then comes full circle
it's the product of empire, but also could be used to             , to reform empire
mercantilism reformed
a system which created                         , rules and practices which sought to ensure that more wealth flowed into European cities than flowed out
the critical instrument that made sure this practice continued was the mercantile              and its sequel, the joint-           company
with escalating               , mercantilist empires had to find revenues to fund these efforts
the          India Company
the icon of this age of mercantilism
a company that enjoyed, by definition,                  rights
the idea of monopoly rights was the most important target of          Smith when he wrote the Wealth of Nations (1776)
monopoly rights meant for large returns from abroad, e.g. in           , and flows of wealth back to Europe, but it was threatening to corrupt Europe at home
these monopoly practices began to be seen in conflict with the Age of Reason
Edmund           
a voice in these debates
made a career out of pointing out the                        and vices who were using public stations to benefit themselves privately
supported the                  Revolutionaries because he was against monopolies
went after Warren Hastings
the chief executive officer of the East India Company
a man of             , science, a man of this age
brought by            into the East India Company as a young man
rose up to succeed Clive
became the first governor general in             
consolidated Clive's conquests in Bengal
imagined himself the product of science, new scientific rules, made new laws, learned                   
was going to apply these new social sciences
"we as men of science have an                      to apply these laws"
compared natural laws and natural rights
already forecasting that by enlightening Indians, British dominance would eventually fade
"the Enlightenment can serve the Empire"
Edward Burke vs. Warren Hastings
East India Company was a Company-State which
had armies
collected taxes
was impeached and led to the "Trial of Warren Hastings"
gained wealth by using a state license
seen at home as corrupting
the way empire was being practiced through this companies was destroying the ethical fabric of society
Burke ruled about company rule
the Enlightenment could spread empire, and empire could spread the                    promise of the Enlightenment
not just a British or French believe
Portugal
Marquis de             

People:

Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
Irish statesman who served in the British House of Commons remembered for his support of the American Revolutionaries and opposition to French Revolution
  • his opposition to the French Revolution led him to become the leading figure within conservative faction of the Whig party
  • attempted to impeach Warren Hastings of the East India Company for personal corruption
  • praised by both conservatives and liberals of the 19th century, today he is viewed as the philosophical founder of modern conservatism
  • "All that is necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men do nothing."
Warren Hastings (1732-1818)
The first Governor-General of Bengal, from 1772 to 1785, was accused of corruption and impeached in 1787, but after a long trial he was acquitted in 1795
  • the letters and journals of Jane Austen and her family, who knew Hastings, show that they followed the trial closely
Marquis de Pombal (1699-1782)
18th-century Portuguese statesman and de facto head of government, notable for his swift and competent leadership in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, he implemented sweeping economic policies in Portugal to regulate commercial activity and standardize quality throughout the country
  • was instrumental in weakening the grip of the Inquisition
  • introduced many fundamental administrative, educational, economic, and ecclesiastical reforms justified in the name of the Enlightenment and instrumental in advancing secularization

Spelling Corrections:

almalgamationsamalgamations
mercantalismmercantilism
forcastingforecasting

Ideas and Concepts:

The burning political question of the 18th century, via tonight's History Since 1300 class: "How can we use these new economic and social sciences to change the way in which we practice state building, instead of continuing to live under these pell-mell, piled-upon, amalgamations of rules and practices invented by and arrived at ad hoc throughout the centuries by these juggernaut and now increasingly financially and ethically bankrupt empires?"
Columbus and the New World
1500-1700 Indian Ocean Trading system
Da Gama, Pepper and World History
Portuguese Indian Ocean Empire
16th Century Colonialism Fueling European Violence
Global Food: European Sugar, Caribbean Plantations, African Slaves
16th and 17th Century Merchant Trading Companies
17th Century Interdependence of Trade and Investment
Francis Drake and Mercantilist Wars
The Apex and Erosion of the Mughal Empire
The Treaty of Westphalia as the Hinge of Modern History
The Influence of Silver on the Ming Dynasty
Political Reverberations of Ming Consolidation
18th China Resurgent as Qing Dynasty
18th Century Tea Trade, Leisure Time, and the Spread of Knowledge
Cook and Clive: Discoverers, Collectors and Conquerors of the Enlightenment
Strains on the Universality of the Enlightenment
The Enlightenment, Empire, and Colonization: Burke vs. Hastings
Enlightenment or Empire
18th Century Land Grabbing
The Industrial Revolution and the Transition of Non-Renewable Energy
The Seven Years' War and Colonial Revolutions
Napoleon, Spain, the Colonies, and Imperial Crises
Human Rights and the Meaning of Membership within Societies
Napoleon, New Nations, and Total War
The Ottoman Empire's 19th Century Tanzimat Reform
The Early 19th Century Market Revolution
The Global Upheavals of the Mid-19th Century
The Train, the Rifle, and the Industrial Revolution
Transition in India: Last of the Mughals
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 and Its Ramifications
Darwin's Effect on 19th Century Ideas
Factors Which Led to the Solidifying of Nation States
1868 Japan: The Meiji Restoration
1871: Germany Becomes a Nation
North American Nation-Building
19th Century Changing Concepts of Labor
The Benefits of Comparative Advantage
Migration after the Age of Revolutions
Creating 19th Century Global Free Trade
The Expanding 19th Century Capitalist System
The Second Industrial Revolution
The Closing of the American Frontier
Africa's Second Imperial Wave
Early 20th Century American Imperialism
1894-1905: Japan's Imperial Wave in Asia
Rashid Rida and 19th Century Islamic Modernization
19th Century Pan-Islam and Zionism Movements
19th Century Global Export-Led Growth
Indian Wars and Mass Slaughter of Bison