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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
The Treaty of Westphalia as the Hinge of Modern History
Notes taken on February 9, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
16th century complicated interconnections between European and Indian powers
interconnections gave way to interdependence
from changing commodities with each other, they also became aware of each other
began exporting slaves from Africa, deployed in the new colonies
slaves and colonies were used to create new levels of wealth which was used to change the relations with the rest of the world
a paradox at the heart of global history
in India, we witnessed the ways which the transformations began the slow secular erosion of central authority in the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire had built up a compound machine that tied local chieftains and kingdoms to central Mughal authority
this began to erode over the 17th century
new decentralized coalitions emerged between European power brokers and local power brokers at the expense of centralized Mughal authority
gave rise to a steady state of warfare which eventually engulfed Bengal, then the richest province of the Mughal Empire
1739: defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah
Nader Shah saw himself as a latter-day Genghis Khan
sacked Dehli and carried away the emperors throne
the paradox was the way the new money and new concentrations of wealth shift the balances of power
favored new kinds of regimes in Europe
the struggle for power motivated the drive for new sources of wealth, a paradox which fueled the instability of the 17th century
brought the Spanish and the Portuguese into a struggle of religious orthodoxy
Europe's religious divisions
Protestants vs. Catholics
Reformation and Counter Reformation
1618-1648: Thirty Years War
spread of political violence
reached its high water marker in the 1640s
Treaty of Westphalia
defined the political boundaries
buried the hatchet
then turned their sites to colonies in the new world
peace on the continent translated into war abroad
tensions resolved at home and began again abroad
led to mini world wars starting in the 1750s and, one might argue, do not really end until the end of the Cold War in 19989
in this way the treaty of Westphalia is a hinge in global history