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Notes on video lecture:
20th Century Questioning of Reason
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
materialism, lost, economies, utopian, bureaucracy, mythology, possessions, utilities, optimism, dark, temptation, capitalism, promising, sufficiency, desire, deepest, inner, Pissarro, gentlemen, anchor, vulnerable, reason, consumption, suffragettes, reason, worry, Enlightenment, channel, public, delinquent, sociology, traditions, anxiety, irrational, Rouen, countryside
protest movements
the right to be included in              life
the right to be included in the interdependent system of                   
                         argued that they deserved these rights because they were reasonable creatures as well
people began to wonder about this faith in the ability of people to             
could rationality from the 18th century characterize the nature of the modern age
where all humans capable of being reasonable creatures
this faith began to be infected by               
economic forces were creating                      creatures
modernity and modernization was producing the opposite of what the                            figures had once optimistically projected forward
mass society was becoming a concern
no longer were cities the home of                    salons
they were becoming the centers of                       , often out of control
cities became crowded, noisy, crime-ridden spaces that were not the products of the Enlightenment that was once promised
villages were coming apart and losing their                     
Camille                  (1830-1903)
Le pont Boïeldieu à           , soleil couchant, temps brumeux (1896)
the city is crowded and gray
the smoke and fumes are the dominant factor
he also had beautiful paintings of the                       
he was capturing here the sense that the community is being          and replaced with society
the church and mosque are no longer the buildings that              the community
but factories
was pulling back the veil
disclose something more primeval about our natures
order was being undone
the philosophers of the 18th century had indicated that we should not worry since we all have an innate capacity to             
but people were beginning to           
the social sciences
resulted from an emerging concern for society
John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946)
not just an economist but in many ways a sociologist, psychologist, political scientist
sociology, psychology and political science were all disciplines born in the late 19th century
these sciences were torn between an earlier                  about an Enlightenment faith and the discontents about what modernization was breeding
the mechanism creating this world threatened to despoil individual's singularity and particularity
Max Weber (1864-1920)
made the case for modernization
became the founder of modern                   
the nature of modernization subjective human beings to ubiquitous rules, routines, enforced punctuality, mindless toil, losing their souls, and disenchantment with everyday life, and being governed by                       , a word that in the 20th century gained increasing currency as people felt that they were being ruled by these invisible, inanimate organizations
Protestantism was an important force in producing                     
also concerned that this newly, inquisitive self, this consumer, was losing their soul
modernization threatened to create a                world in which machines are masquerading as men
José Enrique Rodó (1871-1917)
Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948)
nobody who incarnated this materialist spirit than the India Mahatma Gandhi
wears very little
demonstrates the denial of material                       
suggests that we should go back to tradition
making clothes that we make for ourselves
it gets destroyed in the course of interdependence
simple work for self-                      
many started to begin to argue against the Enlightenment movement
we are much more governed by passion, unreason and             
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
the founder in some respects of psychology
1900 The Interpretation of Dreams
you can get a glimpse of people's            worlds
it is full of darkness, passion, and desire, and not ration, calculating intention
was fascinated by the role of                   
Greek myths and other myths that told tales of our inner lives
humans are at their base sexual animals with basic passions, not just the calculating, possessive, individualists seeking property and maximizing their                   
this was not altogether new
what he did was to systematize this thought and burrowed the               
we are not just ruled by our consciousness but we carried around with an an engine of unconsciousness
these desires need to be process or repressed and expressed in other ways
so the triumph of civilization was not the triumph of reason
but our ability to contain, repress, and                ourselves
we see the emergence of the modern social sciences
seeking to explain the modern condition and its pathologies
psychology associated with criminology
women were seen by many to be the most                     
Cesar Lombroso (1835–1909)
book: La Donna Delinquente
the                      woman
her pose on the cover of his book: one of                      in front of pigs
the          side of human nature gained focus in the 20th century
something in the air that was producing these anxieties even when modernity was                    so much


######################### (1871-1917)
Uruguayan essayist who called for the youth of Latin America to reject materialism, to revert to Greco-Roman habits of virtuous thought and self enrichment, and to develop and concentrate on their culture
  • exchanged letters with important Hispanic thinkers of the time such as Leopoldo Alas in Spain
  • Rodó is today considered the preeminent theorist of the modernista school of literature
  • is best known for his essay Ariel (1900), drawn from The Tempest, in which Ariel represents the positive, and Caliban represents the negative tendencies in human nature, and they debate the future course of history
  • Rodó intended Ariel to be a secular sermon to Latin American youth, championing the cause of the classical western tradition
  • spoke out against debilitating effect of working individuals' limited existence doing the same work, over and over again, never having time to develop the spirit
  • denounced pragmatic utilitarianism, i.e. the philosophical movement that considered utility as the way to bring the most happiness to all those affected by it
  • argued that utilitarianism causes individuals to become specialized in very specific fields and as an effect of such specialization, they end up receiving an incomplete, deformed education
  • warns against nordomanía, or the attraction of North America and argues for the importance of regional identity and how it should be rooted deeply into every country

Ideas and Concepts:

Via this morning's History of the World Since 1300 class: "The disciplines of sociology, psychology and political science were all disciplines born in the late 19th century, attempts to apply science to the situation of societies increasingly torn between an earlier optimism of an Enlightenment faith and the discontents about what modernization was breeding."
Thoughts on modernity via this evening's History of the World Since 1300 class: "Max Weber (1864-1920), the founder of modern sociology, warned that the nature of modernization would increasingly subject human beings to ubiquitous rules, routines, enforced punctuality, and mindless toil. It would convert people into consumers who gradually lose their souls, become disenchanted with everyday life, and would be forever governed by bureaucracy, a word that in the 20th century gained increasing currency as people began to feel that they were being ruled by these newly created, invisible, inanimate organizations."
Columbus and the New World
1500-1700 Indian Ocean Trading system
Da Gama, Pepper and World History
Portuguese Indian Ocean Empire
16th Century Colonialism Fueling European Violence
Global Food: European Sugar, Caribbean Plantations, African Slaves
16th and 17th Century Merchant Trading Companies
17th Century Interdependence of Trade and Investment
Francis Drake and Mercantilist Wars
The Apex and Erosion of the Mughal Empire
The Treaty of Westphalia as the Hinge of Modern History
The Influence of Silver on the Ming Dynasty
Political Reverberations of Ming Consolidation
18th China Resurgent as Qing Dynasty
18th Century Tea Trade, Leisure Time, and the Spread of Knowledge
Cook and Clive: Discoverers, Collectors and Conquerors of the Enlightenment
Strains on the Universality of the Enlightenment
The Enlightenment, Empire, and Colonization: Burke vs. Hastings
Enlightenment or Empire
18th Century Land Grabbing
The Industrial Revolution and the Transition of Non-Renewable Energy
The Seven Years' War and Colonial Revolutions
Napoleon, Spain, the Colonies, and Imperial Crises
Human Rights and the Meaning of Membership within Societies
Napoleon, New Nations, and Total War
The Ottoman Empire's 19th Century Tanzimat Reform
The Early 19th Century Market Revolution
The Global Upheavals of the Mid-19th Century
The Train, the Rifle, and the Industrial Revolution
Transition in India: Last of the Mughals
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 and Its Ramifications
Darwin's Effect on 19th Century Ideas
Factors Which Led to the Solidifying of Nation States
1868 Japan: The Meiji Restoration
1871: Germany Becomes a Nation
North American Nation-Building
19th Century Changing Concepts of Labor
The Benefits of Comparative Advantage
Migration after the Age of Revolutions
Creating 19th Century Global Free Trade
The Expanding 19th Century Capitalist System
The Second Industrial Revolution
The Closing of the American Frontier
Africa's Second Imperial Wave
Early 20th Century American Imperialism
1894-1905: Japan's Imperial Wave in Asia
Rashid Rida and 19th Century Islamic Modernization
19th Century Pan-Islam and Zionism Movements
19th Century Global Export-Led Growth
Indian Wars and Mass Slaughter of Bison
The Suez Canal's Effect on the Malayan Tiger
1890-1914: Savage Wars of Peace
1900-1909: Russian and Turkish Dynasties
1899-1911 The End of the Qing Dynasty
The 1910 Mexican Revolution
The Panic of 1907
Turn-of-the-Century Civilization and its Discontents
20th Century Questioning of Reason
Late 19th Century Anxieties of Race
The First World War
The End of WWI and the Attempt at Global Peace
The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919
The Wilson-Lenin Moment
1919 Self-Determination Movements in India
Post-WWI European Peace and Global Colonial Upheaval
1929 Economic Collapse
Changes in Capitalism between the Wars
1918-1945 Rethinking Economies