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Notes on video lecture:
The Early 19th Century Market Revolution
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Nanging, Ottoman, humiliation, hobbled, trade, lucrative, state, Manchu, Canton, heathens, Protestant, metals, Smith, illegitimate, Opium, Confucian, dead, finance, Nanging, aphrodisiac, erosion, conquered, free, agrarian, Pasha, penetrate, Eurasia, brother, prices, order, Mughal, Xiuquan, India, Chinese, 1842, outside, steam, silver, messianic, Christian, civil, Pyrrhic
market revolution
merchants didn't need anymore            sanctions to enjoy their privileges
there emerged a new ideology of          trade
Ali            (1769-1849) made deal with the British to get access to markets
drew inspiration from Adam           
coupled with a transformation in               
new financial actors: merchant bankers
old agrarian aristocracies of China, India and the                Empire were now being challenged by these new kinds of relationships
being threatened less by formal empires and more by merchant            practices
penetration of market forces into ancient, aristocratic societies shook the balance of the                system
had never undergone a conquest in the way that the Americas had been                   
instead, a slow process of                of the sovereignty of the Qing Empire
partly from forces from within
like the Ottoman and              Empire (1526-1857)
spreading unrest as food became scarcer and more expensive
new pressures from                China
reversing of trade balance between Europe and China
Europe used to have to bring precious             
by 1828,              began to flow out of China
commodities from Europe began to flow into China
cotton textiles and metal wares
put pressures on              in China
ports like              were thriving with business
after 1807, English and American                      missionaries would begin penetrating into China
with a dream of converting 150 million                 
opium trade
narcotics have always been a very                    business
opium offered a great high and was allegedly an                       
a product that Chinese seemed to want from European merchants
in particular from the East            Company
brought opium from India
Chinese government tried to shut down the opium dens
tried to control the traffic
concerned about spreading addiction
by         , 40,000 chests of opium were being shipped per year to China markets
government was very weak in trying to do this
foreign powers were unwilling to collaborate with the                since they were making money on this trade
arrival of British            ships
defend the dens
bombardment of Chinese ports in Canton
Chinese used clubs and spears to defend themselves against British artillery
1842 Treaty of               
humiliating treaty
marked the end of the First            War (1839-1842)
enormous indemnities to the victors
creation of treaty ports
laws for foreigners to enjoy their own laws when in China
the triumph of free trade
further                the Chinese state
1840s Chinese response
try to protect against this
but there was already a decline and dire circumstances for the state
                       of the state
spread of the consumption of illegal products like opium
no apparent ability to control it
people began to search out for a new moral           
a new compass
a new way of governing China
this kind of decline attracted                    and millenarian movements
Hong Xiuquan
influenced by                    missionaries
1837 had a dream
saw himself as Jesus'               
failed the civil service examinations
so founded the Society of God Worshipers
led uprising against the Chinese state
movement spread
Taiping Rebellion
Hong                (1814–1864)
claimed to be brother of Jesus
preached with many Biblical allusions
emerged as a national threat to the Qing authority
army of 700,000 took               
target was the              who were governing China
also                    and Buddhist leaders believed that people the Taiping Rebellion would pull people away
ultimate it was foreigner who were most alarmed, fearing chaos in this marketplace
rushed troops and weapons to China to put down this rebellion
took 15 years to put it down
the worst            war in history
20-30 million people left         
left Qing state even more crippled and                          than when it started out
Qing government more indebted to foreigners than it was before
the Qing's victory over the Taiping Rebellion was a                victory
they were forced to allow foreigners to                    markets with even more preferential terms than ever
so we can ask ourselves how free trade, this revolution in concepts of freedom, crept into, insinuated itself into an old,                  dynasty that was never conquered by the West but was slowly crippled by these new practices and doctrines, hollowed out from within to serve a new kind of commercial purpose

Spelling Corrections:


Ideas and Concepts:

The political use of the Jesus Christ meme apparently not confined to America, via this morning's History Since 1300 class: "Hong Xiuquan (1814–1864) was a Hakka Chinese man who led the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty, establishing the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom over varying portions of southern China, with himself as the Heavenly King and self-proclaimed brother of Jesus Christ. At the age of 22, in 1836, Hong decided to take the provincial examinations in the city of Guangzhou (Canton) where he happened to hear an Evangelical Christian missionary preaching. In 1837 after failing his imperial examinations, he suffered a nervous collapse and had a number of vivid and terrifying dreams, which he interpreted as mystical visions based on the preaching he had heard. Hong began burning all Confucian and Buddhist statues and books in his house, and set out preaching to his community about his visions. By 1850 Hong had between 10,000 to 30,000 followers and from 1850 to 1864 led the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty. Following a failed attempt by the Taiping rebels to take Shanghai in 1860, Qing government forces, aided by Western officers, slowly gained ground. It is thought that in 1864 after Qing authorities finally gained a decisive military advantage and all hope of maintaining his kingdom was lost, Hong committed suicide by taking poison."
European Conquest 2.0 via this morning's History Since 1300 class: "The Taiping Rebellion took the Qinq dynasty 15 years to put down, which resulted in more than 20 million deaths, certainly the worst civil war in history. And the Qing would not have been able to quell this rebellion had it not been for the aid of European powers who were equally as alarmed by the uprising, fearing chaos in this Asian marketplace. But the Qing's victory over the Taiping Rebellion was a Pyrrhic victory:it left the Qing state even more crippled and illegitimate than when it started out, and the government was then forced to allow foreigners to penetrate markets with even more preferential terms than before. So we can ask ourselves how free trade, this revolution in concepts of freedom, crept into, insinuated itself into an old, agrarian dynasty that was never conquered by the West per se, but was slowly crippled by these new practices and doctrines, hollowed out from within to serve a new kind of commercial purpose."
Columbus and the New World
1500-1700 Indian Ocean Trading system
Da Gama, Pepper and World History
Portuguese Indian Ocean Empire
16th Century Colonialism Fueling European Violence
Global Food: European Sugar, Caribbean Plantations, African Slaves
16th and 17th Century Merchant Trading Companies
17th Century Interdependence of Trade and Investment
Francis Drake and Mercantilist Wars
The Apex and Erosion of the Mughal Empire
The Treaty of Westphalia as the Hinge of Modern History
The Influence of Silver on the Ming Dynasty
Political Reverberations of Ming Consolidation
18th China Resurgent as Qing Dynasty
18th Century Tea Trade, Leisure Time, and the Spread of Knowledge
Cook and Clive: Discoverers, Collectors and Conquerors of the Enlightenment
Strains on the Universality of the Enlightenment
The Enlightenment, Empire, and Colonization: Burke vs. Hastings
Enlightenment or Empire
18th Century Land Grabbing
The Industrial Revolution and the Transition of Non-Renewable Energy
The Seven Years' War and Colonial Revolutions
Napoleon, Spain, the Colonies, and Imperial Crises
Human Rights and the Meaning of Membership within Societies
Napoleon, New Nations, and Total War
The Ottoman Empire's 19th Century Tanzimat Reform
The Early 19th Century Market Revolution
The Global Upheavals of the Mid-19th Century
The Train, the Rifle, and the Industrial Revolution
Transition in India: Last of the Mughals
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 and Its Ramifications
Darwin's Effect on 19th Century Ideas
Factors Which Led to the Solidifying of Nation States
1868 Japan: The Meiji Restoration
1871: Germany Becomes a Nation
North American Nation-Building
19th Century Changing Concepts of Labor
The Benefits of Comparative Advantage
Migration after the Age of Revolutions
Creating 19th Century Global Free Trade
The Expanding 19th Century Capitalist System
The Second Industrial Revolution
The Closing of the American Frontier
Africa's Second Imperial Wave
Early 20th Century American Imperialism
1894-1905: Japan's Imperial Wave in Asia
Rashid Rida and 19th Century Islamic Modernization
19th Century Pan-Islam and Zionism Movements
19th Century Global Export-Led Growth
Indian Wars and Mass Slaughter of Bison
The Suez Canal's Effect on the Malayan Tiger
1890-1914: Savage Wars of Peace
1900-1909: Russian and Turkish Dynasties
1899-1911 The End of the Qing Dynasty
The 1910 Mexican Revolution
The Panic of 1907
Turn-of-the-Century Civilization and its Discontents
20th Century Questioning of Reason
Late 19th Century Anxieties of Race
The First World War
The End of WWI and the Attempt at Global Peace
The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919
The Wilson-Lenin Moment
1919 Self-Determination Movements in India
Post-WWI European Peace and Global Colonial Upheaval
1929 Economic Collapse
Changes in Capitalism between the Wars
1918-1945 Rethinking Economies