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Notes on video lecture:
The Benefits of Comparative Advantage
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Indian, Syria, frontier, wheat, self, Darwin, grassroots, regulation, Tocqueville, global, safety, 1830s, institutionalized, mercantilist, resistance, Peasants, slave, interdependent, utopia, 1846, Jacksonian, empire, force, upheavals, economists, free, industries, France, 1914, Turkish, rights, fundamental, Algérie, clocks, alters, frontier
transition from self-sufficient villages to                              societies
Marx observed this as                        to the system
the demise of                          empires
the end of the            trade
the rise of          labor
these were intensifying
painting: Pieter Bruegel's                 
taking a break from their work
they take a lot of breaks because they produce for their own needs
there are no             
there are no assembly lines
you're producing for village needs
you're         -sufficient
how trade changes the world
creation of interdependent societies
the village used to be largely self-sufficient
trade              this system
societies become interdependent
urban
e.g. England
produces manufactured goods
rural
e.g. Argentina
export           
there is interdependence
you no longer produce for your own subsistence needs
promote free trade with little                     
as they become more specialized, they become more productive, and as they become more productive, they become wealthier
to own property and to trade became basic             
these became principles that would govern laws and institutions
David Ricardo
one of the first                      to observe these trends
promoted the idea of extreme industry specialization by nations, to the point of dismantling internationally competitive and otherwise profitable                     
there are benefits that come from comparative advantage
it was applied to parts of globe that did not necessarily want to be part of the system, i.e. did not want to be the weak exporters
free trade sometimes has to be imposed by           
                     of societies at the arrival of the market place
merchants seen as the instruments that corroded older economies
             Rebellion of 1857
a response to the dispossession of land
anger over taxes being levied by the East India Company
capitalism becomes                                   
after Napoleonic wars, it would be free trade, and not old empires, that would pull the parts of the global system together
Marx
this resistence against capitialism were spasms of a dying             -based world
saw capitalism as destiny
Marx not the only one who saw these trends
but Marx was unique in piecing the parts together
Alexis de                       
in the            was sent to the United States to report back on innovations in the penitentary system
during the                      era
the ways in which capitalism was unfolding in the                  societies in the United States
found an egalitarian society with                      democracy
strength rested on power of civil society
wrote one of the great tracts called Democracy in America
it was obvious to de Tocqueville that America's thriving economic system depended on its                 
between the opportunities between the frontier for economic expansion
the United States could have capitalism without the                    which appeared to come inevitably in the other capitalist transformations in Europe, India, China and elsewhere
combination of a civil society and a frontier
1841 and          traveled to north Africa
"Travail sur l'                            "
saw here a possibility for France to open up a frontier zone analogous to the opening of the frontier that the United States had
it's own              valve
it's own opportunity to resolve the tension of capitalism by opening up the opportunity for others to settle land
describes an Algeria populated by Arabs on the coast
Berber tribes in the interior
all living within a decaying                regime
these coastal plains were lying in wait for European settlers, for agrarian colonization
analogous to the United States
the conquest of Algeria could do for France what westward expansion could do for the United States
he expressed these thoughts as a member of             's Chamber of Deputes
from a 1840 speech: "What is now taking place in Egypt and in            is only at the edge of a vast panorama, only the prelude to a dramatic action on a large scale. Do you know what is happening in the East? An entire world is changing. From the banks of the Indus to the shoes of the Black Sea, in that vast space, every society is being shaken, every religion is growing weaker, the nations are dying, every light is being extinguished, the ancient Asiatic world is disappearing. And we are seeing the European world gradually take its place. In our time, Europe is not merely nibbling away at one corner of Asia as Europe did in the days of the Crusades. It is attacking it to the north, the south, the east, the west, everywhere. It is puncturing the ancient world, enveloping it, subduing it."
arguing as Marx did that there was a              destiny to the system that Europe had created
the growth of European expansion will see its climax in the First World War
ends with the guns of August         
our first narratives of globalization
Marx
            
De Tocqueville
we can say that these people were both trying to envision a future              but also looking at the world as it already was and trying to make sense of it

Spelling Corrections:

penitentarypenitentiary
resistenceresistance

Ideas and Concepts:

Insights into America's historical uniqueness, via this morning's History Since 1300 class: "It was obvious to de Tocqueville that America's thriving economic system depended on its frontier, which meant it could have capitalism without the upheavals which appeared to arise inevitably in the other capitalist transformations in Europe, India, China and elsewhere."
Via tonight's History Since 1300 class, from a speech given in 1840 by Alexis de Tocqueville after having seen America's Manifest Destiny in the North American West, predicting a Manifest Destiny in the Middle East for Europe: "What is now taking place in Egypt and in Syria is only at the edge of a vast panorama, only the prelude to a dramatic action on a large scale. Do you know what is happening in the East? An entire world is changing. From the banks of the Indus to the shores of the Black Sea, in that vast space, every society is being shaken, every religion is growing weaker, the nations are dying, every light is being extinguished, the ancient Asiatic world is disappearing. And we are seeing the European world gradually take its place. In our time, Europe is not merely nibbling away at one corner of Asia as Europe did in the days of the Crusades. It is attacking it to the north, the south, the east, the west, everywhere. It is puncturing the ancient world, enveloping it, subduing it."
Columbus and the New World
1500-1700 Indian Ocean Trading system
Da Gama, Pepper and World History
Portuguese Indian Ocean Empire
16th Century Colonialism Fueling European Violence
Global Food: European Sugar, Caribbean Plantations, African Slaves
16th and 17th Century Merchant Trading Companies
17th Century Interdependence of Trade and Investment
Francis Drake and Mercantilist Wars
The Apex and Erosion of the Mughal Empire
The Treaty of Westphalia as the Hinge of Modern History
The Influence of Silver on the Ming Dynasty
Political Reverberations of Ming Consolidation
18th China Resurgent as Qing Dynasty
18th Century Tea Trade, Leisure Time, and the Spread of Knowledge
Cook and Clive: Discoverers, Collectors and Conquerors of the Enlightenment
Strains on the Universality of the Enlightenment
The Enlightenment, Empire, and Colonization: Burke vs. Hastings
Enlightenment or Empire
18th Century Land Grabbing
The Industrial Revolution and the Transition of Non-Renewable Energy
The Seven Years' War and Colonial Revolutions
Napoleon, Spain, the Colonies, and Imperial Crises
Human Rights and the Meaning of Membership within Societies
Napoleon, New Nations, and Total War
The Ottoman Empire's 19th Century Tanzimat Reform
The Early 19th Century Market Revolution
The Global Upheavals of the Mid-19th Century
The Train, the Rifle, and the Industrial Revolution
Transition in India: Last of the Mughals
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 and Its Ramifications
Darwin's Effect on 19th Century Ideas
Factors Which Led to the Solidifying of Nation States
1868 Japan: The Meiji Restoration
1871: Germany Becomes a Nation
North American Nation-Building
19th Century Changing Concepts of Labor
The Benefits of Comparative Advantage
Migration after the Age of Revolutions
Creating 19th Century Global Free Trade
The Expanding 19th Century Capitalist System
The Second Industrial Revolution
The Closing of the American Frontier
Africa's Second Imperial Wave
Early 20th Century American Imperialism
1894-1905: Japan's Imperial Wave in Asia
Rashid Rida and 19th Century Islamic Modernization
19th Century Pan-Islam and Zionism Movements
19th Century Global Export-Led Growth
Indian Wars and Mass Slaughter of Bison
The Suez Canal's Effect on the Malayan Tiger
1890-1914: Savage Wars of Peace
1900-1909: Russian and Turkish Dynasties
1899-1911 The End of the Qing Dynasty
The 1910 Mexican Revolution
The Panic of 1907
Turn-of-the-Century Civilization and its Discontents
20th Century Questioning of Reason
Late 19th Century Anxieties of Race
The First World War
The End of WWI and the Attempt at Global Peace
The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919
The Wilson-Lenin Moment
1919 Self-Determination Movements in India
Post-WWI European Peace and Global Colonial Upheaval
1929 Economic Collapse