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My Notes on Massive Open Online Course:
Christianisme et philosophie dans l'Antiquité
Présentation des relations entre le christianisme et la philosophie dans l'Antiquité grecque et romaine.
Notes on 8 Lectures I Watched in This Course:
Jésus et les origines du christianisme
Naissance de l'Église
D'une religion orientale à la religion officielle
Les textes patristiques
L'antirationalisme chrétien
L'opposition à la philosophie: l'apologétique
Les hérésiologues
Credo quia absurdum
1 People I Have Learned About in this Course:
Julian the Apostate (331-363 AD)
Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and Greek author, a man of unusually complex character: military commander, social reformer, man of letters, and theosophist (theosophy, mystic philosophy seeking the origin and purpose of the universe)
  • a member of the Constantinian dynasty, Julian became Caesar over the western provinces by order of Constantius II in 355 and in this role campaigned successfully against the Alamanni and Franks
  • most notable was his crushing victory over the Alamanni in 357 at the Battle of Argentoratum (Strasbourg), leading his 13,000 men against a Germanic army three times larger
  • in 360 in Lutetia (Paris) he was proclaimed Augustus by his soldiers, sparking a civil war between Julian and Constantius
  • before the two could face each other in battle, however, Constantius died, after naming Julian as his rightful successor
  • was the last non-Christian ruler of the Roman Empire, and it was his desire to bring the Empire back to its ancient Roman values in order to, as he saw it, save it from dissolution
  • purged the top-heavy state bureaucracy and attempted to revive traditional Roman religious practices at the expense of Christianity
  • Julian was mortally wounded in a campaign against the Sassanid Empire (224-651 Turkey/Iran) and died shortly thereafter
4 Vocabulary Words I Learned in this Course:
Ebionites, n. From the Greek Ἐβιωναῖοι which is derived from the Hebrew ebyonim, or "the poor", the Ebionites were a Jewish Christian movement that existed during the early centuries of the Christian Era. They regarded Jesus of Nazareth as the Messiah while rejecting his divinity, and insisted on the necessity of following Jewish law and rites. As their name suggests that they placed a special value on voluntary poverty.  "After his death, Jesus had in the eyes of his disciples the status of a reformer, a prophet of the Kingdom, and the devine Messiah, but certain early Christian groups such as the Ebionites, contested the divinity of Jesus and considered him to be a simple prophet."
Marcionism, n. An Early Christian dualist belief system that originated in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144. Marcion believed Jesus was the savior sent by God, and Paul the Apostle was his chief apostle, but he rejected the Hebrew Bible and the God of Israel. Marcionists believed that the wrathful Hebrew God was a separate and lower entity than the all-forgiving God of the New Testament. This belief was in some ways similar to Gnostic Christian theology, notably, both are dualistic in that they both they posit opposing gods, forces, or principles: one higher, spiritual, and good, and the other lower, material, and evil, as in Manicheism. Other Christian views of the time, in contrast, viewed evil as having no independent existence, but merely a privation or lack of good, e.g. a view shared by the Jewish theologian Moses Maimonides (1135-1204).
paideia, n. [παιδεία] In the culture of ancient Greece, paideia refered to the rearing and education of the ideal member of the polis. It incorporated both practical, subject-based schooling and a focus upon the socialization of individuals within the aristocratic order of the polis. The practical aspects of this education included the liberal arts such as rhetoric, grammar, and philosophy, as well as scientific disciplines like arithmetic and medicine. An ideal and successful member of the polis would possess intellectual, moral and physical refinement, so training in gymnastics and wrestling was valued for its effect on the body alongside the moral education which the Greeks believed was imparted by the study of music, poetry and philosophy.
philoneikia, n. [φιλονεικία] l'amour du conflit et de la contestation  "Pour les auteurs qui estiment que la philosophie est une invention humaine ou démoniaque, à leurs yeux elle n’est pas une recherche de la vérité, mais une lutte inspirée par le seul plaisir de contredire, une philoneikia, la philosophie ne serait pas une recherche du savoir, mais une recherche de la querelle."
170 Flashcards I Recorded in this Course:
pr. au sens où elle
[oh sans oo]
was formed
s'est constitué
could attract
pouvait attirer
it also provoked strong opposition
il suscitait également des oppositions fortes
which are ideological in nature
qui sont d'ordre idéologique
Christians themselves claim
chrétiens eux-mêmes prétendent
the terms of this opposition
les modalités de cette opposition
What do they reproach
Que lui reprochent-ils
in relation to
par rapport à
to all the scholars
à tous les lettrés
which are more a matter of higher education
qui relèvent plutôt de l'enseignement supérieur
sometimes considered
tantôt considérée
Whatever the meaning
Quel que soit le sens qu'on donne
including the texts of the poets
compris dans les textes des poètes
Otherwise
Par ailleurs
which contrasts with
qui tranche avec
that arise in
qui se font jour dans
consider themselves custodians
s'estiment dépositaires
afterwards
ensuite
are deceiving themselves into thinking
se leurrent en pensant qu'on
by purely human means
par des voies purement humaines
take the path
emprunter le chemin
by the vain lure of philosophy
par le vain leurre de la philosophie
rational approach
démarche rationnelle
one coule be tempted
on a pu être tenté
which found itself very early
qui s'est retrouvé très tôt
in the course of the first century
dans le courant du Ier siècle
claimed by the Christians
dont se réclament les chrétiens
was able to be built
a pu se constituer
the Gospels
les évangiles
It is not known exactly how long
On ignore la durée exacte
preaching
prédication
the advent of a new era
l'avènement d'une nouvelle ère
requires
passe par
he rose again on the third day of his burial
il est ressuscité le troisième jour de sa mise au tombeau
which will start to appear
qui va commencer à apparaître
to wash the sins of Israel
pour laver les péchés d'Israël
prophet of the Kingdom
prophète du Royaume
will not agree on this point
ne seront pas d'accord sur ce point
who came to announce the knowledge of the father
venu annoncer la connaissance du Père
He had, for them, no relation to
Il n'aurait, pour eux, aucun rapport avec
the belief in the Messiah
la croyance en la messianité
is needed in the church
s'impose dans la Grande Église
emanating from the mainstream
qui émanent de ce courant majoritaire
he who is annointed
celui qui est oint
he who is anointed of God
qui a reçu l'onction de Dieu
The faith in the divity of Jesus
La foi en la divinité de Jésus
raises important debates
suscitera des débats importants
who were the Five Good Emperors
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius
We have just mentioned
Nous venons d'évoquer
had borrowed from philosophy
ont emprunté à la philosophie
harmful influence of philosophy
influence néfaste de la philosophie
the abyss
l'abîme
plagiarists
plagiaires
reconciliation
rapprochement
It was also found
On a d'ailleurs retrouvé
which I just mentioned
que je viens d'évoquer
which stands out as the simplest explanation
qui s'impose comme l'explication la plus simple
to account for
pour rendre compte
how is it that from truth can be born an error
comment se fait-il que de la vérité puisse naître l'erreur
He tries to show that
Il s'efforce de montrer que
this framework
ce cadre
who rely on this
qui s'appuient pour ce faire
that God is unbegotten
que Dieu est inengendré
the breeding ground of heresy
le terreau de l'hérésie
the figure claimed by Christians
la figure dont se réclament les chrétiens
in the aftermath of the death of Jesus
au lendemain de la mort de Jésus
were composed between the years 80 and 90
furent composés vers 80-90
It's a narrative that takes us to
C'est un récit qui nous emmène jusqu'à
that he went to Damas
qu'il se rend à Damas
and then becomes
et devient dès lors
This fact must have played a role
Ce fait a dû jouer un rôle
commonly
communément
The ancient pagans
Les anciens païens
report in this respect an event
rapportent à cet égard un événement
which would have occurred
qui serait survenu
to impose on the converts of the pagan world
imposer aux convertis issus du monde païen
food bans
les interdictions alimentaires
They didn't have to subject themselves to circumcism
Ils n'avaient pas à s'astreindre à la circoncision
seems to have played a particular role
paraît d'ailleurs avoir joué un rôle particulier
bishop
évêque
both on the Christian side and on the Jewish side
tant du côté chrétien que du côté juif
Whatever the variety of situations
Quelle que soit la variété des situations
We have just seen that
Nous venons de voir que
two ways to reach truth
deux façons d’atteindre la vérité
one that would be doomed to failure
l’une qui serait vouée à l’échec
which is supposed to be infallible
qui est censée être infaillible
I would now like to
Je voudrais à présent que
to turn away from philosophy
à se détourner de la philosophie
mostly
surtout
attempts to defend
tentatives pour défendre
bishop
évêque
Epistle
Epître
laboriously
péniblement
gropings
tâtonnements
a gift
un don
a rewrite
une réécriture
what the text of Genesis does not do
ce que ne fait pas le texte de la Genèse
and other secrets
et d’autres secrets encore
condemned to lead its followers in error
condamnée à mener ses adeptes dans l’erreur
atheists
des athées
to deny the very existence
de nier jusqu’à l’existence même
constantly underline the contradiction
soulignent par ailleurs constamment la contradiction
that we were interested
que nous nous intéressions
in just three centuries
en trois siècles à peine
to face
affronter
In this context
Dans ce cadre
The Emperor Decius
L'empereur Dèce
and sometimes executed
et parfois exécutés
end the persecution
mettent fin à la persécution
It can be seen that in less than a century
On voit donc qu'en moins d'un siècle
both in the East and in the West
tant en Orient qu'en Occident
all the more so
ce d'autant plus
encounter opposition
rencontrent des oppositions
at least three times
au moins à trois reprises
which at that time fell upon the Empire
qui s'abattent à cette époque sur l'Empire
upset
bouleverser
they appear as renegades
ils apparaissent comme des renégats
And moreover
Et par ailleurs
including among elites
y compris chez les élites
This attraction of cults
Cet attrait des cultes
cults attract
cultes attirent
religions of salvation
des religions de salut
these expectations
ces attentes
as such
en tant que tel
could have imposed itself to the detriment of Christianity
aurait pu s'imposer au détriment du christianisme
which imposed itself
qui s'est imposé
irrespective of their ethnicity or gender
quelle que soit leur appartenance ethnique ou quel que soit leur sexe
otherwise
par ailleurs
a historical account
un récit historique
It brings us back to one aspect
Elle nous renvoie à un aspect
the adherents claim to hold
les adeptes prétendent détenir
addressed by the philosophers
abordées par les philosophes
is often cited as evidence of the fundamentally irrational character
est souvent citée comme témoignage du caractère foncièrement irrationnel
For when one makes a slogan implying a rejection of
Car quand on en fait un slogan impliquant un rejet de
allows us to consider
nous permet d'envisager
who lived
qui a vécu
On the Flesh of Christ
Sur la chair du Christ
attacks another Christian
s'en prend à un autre chrétien
who denied the reality of the Incarnation
qui niait la réalité de l'Incarnation
did not really incarnate
ne s'était pas vraiment incarné
could have changed its nature
ait pu changer de nature
it is impious to want to limit the power
il est impie de vouloir limiter la puissance
shock our understanding
choquent notre entendement
it is to give credit to what goes beyond our reason
c'est d'accorder foi à ce qui dépasse notre raison
ascribed to Terullien
qu'on prête à Tertullien
not that we must believe all that is absurd
non pas qu'il faille croire tout ce qui est absurde
grants reason a place in knowledge
accorde à la raison une place dans la connaissance
he testifies
il témoigne
a primacy of faith
une primauté de la foi
in relation to reason
par rapport à la raison
that goes beyond understanding
qui dépassent l'entendement
We have just seen
On vient de voir
owed much of its success to its doctrine
devait une partie importante de son succès à sa doctrine
through a production of abundante literature
à travers la production d'une abondante littérature
later writings
écrits postérieurs
the very beginning
le tout débout
in the course of the second century
dans le courant de IIe siècle
It was only after 200
Ce n'est qu'après 200
by circles on the sidelines of the official Church
par des milieux en marge de l'Église officielle
We have just recalled
Nous venons de rappeler
the dome
la coupole
There are also
Il y a par ailleurs
otherwise
par ailleurs
we are sometimes tempted
on est parfois tenté
the rise of the apologetics
l'essor de l'apologétique
this we own to Hippolyte but especially to Origen
qu'on doit à Hippolyte mais surtout à Origène
a very important part
un pan très important
they have more pages
il comptent plus de pages
it should be kept in mind
il faut garder à l'esprit