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Notes on video lecture:
Da Gama, Pepper and World History
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
bully, Gujarati, expertise, berry, Mozambique, Alexandria, hostages, entrepôt, Iberians, Storms, 23, Romans, Mombasa, monsoons, Zamorin, India, seafaring, lucrative, Doña, gold, Calicut, Eastern, preciosity, Malindi, flake
pepper, from                      to necessity
the way we use pepper today:
from           , harvested green
left to ferment to allow the skin to            off, so the insides can darken and shrivel
crucial for masalas in India and grilled meats in the Arab world, and              loved their pepper
Vasco da Gama (1469-1524)
Portuguese explorer
commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to           
one of the most successful explorers
first European to reach India by sea
1480 exploring coast of Africa
lured westward and southward in pursuit of African         
1497 first to skirt the southern tip of Africa (Cape of             , later called Cape of Good Hope)
they were avoiding the Muslim blockade of North Africa and the                Mediterranean
from the beginning played by his own rules
in                     , attacked ships which contained supplies that would nourish his crew
entered               , Kenya, got into a shootout
then into               , Kenya and did the same thing
what did he want as he made his way up the coast of Africa?
he needed help to get to India
he had figured out that he had crossed into the Indian ocean which no one before him had done
he found he had "gotten in through the back door" so to say
now he needed some local                    to navigate to India
but he had nothing to offer, only his brute strength
Ahman Ibn Majid (1421-1500)
raised with a family famous for                   
became famous in the West as the navigator who helped Vasco da Gama find his way from Africa to India
author of nearly forty works of poetry and prose
some called him a Christian, some a Muslim, some a                  (Indian ethnic group)
important role as a broker
enabled Europeans to navigate
similar to                        Marina for Cortez
allowed da Gama to take pepper and drugs on board
in Portugal, these goods were later computed at sixty times the cost of the entire expedition
1498 took da Gama      days to cross the Indian Ocean
entered port of               
three beaten up vessels, rather small, but different to vessels in India
heavy, rounded plank hulls
high super-structures, three mastered and square rigs
cannons protruding
he wanted something                   , his journey had to pay off
he knew that that Calicut was a great pepper                             
all he had to offer were some hats, metal cookware, old coats, butter, honey, not much for a great king, courtiers laughed at him
eventually forged a contract
leaving, didn't pay exit tax, and took four                  from Calicut in case they would be pursued
Calicut glad to be rid of this impoverish, Portuguese           
da Gama had no pilot, headed into                 , one ship lost
slinked back into Lisbon, only two vessels
this cargo of pepper issued a rip tide of news throughout Europe
can explain the long-term decline of the Venetian economy, as it slowly lost its special, strategic location in the Mediterranean
Arab merchants in                      also worried about being circumnavigated
1490s: exploration, trade and religion became intimately entwined
1496: King of Portugal died
Manuel I of Portugal (1469-1521)
1495-1521 reigned
fervent believer that there was something redemptive in what                  were doing in their explorations and imagined himself the last world emperor fighting a crusade against the Antichrist
prone to the same kind of fantasies that Isabelle had with Columbus
Queen Isabella of Portugal (1451-1503)
husband Ferdinand II of Aragon
brought stability to kingdoms of Portugal and Spain
Columbus and the New World
1500-1700 Indian Ocean Trading system
Da Gama, Pepper and World History
Portuguese Indian Ocean Empire
16th Century Colonialism Fueling European Violence
Global Food: European Sugar, Caribbean Plantations, African Slaves
16th and 17th Century Merchant Trading Companies
17th Century Interdependence of Trade and Investment
Francis Drake and Mercantilist Wars
The Apex and Erosion of the Mughal Empire
The Treaty of Westphalia as the Hinge of Modern History
The Influence of Silver on the Ming Dynasty
Political Reverberations of Ming Consolidation
18th China Resurgent as Qing Dynasty
18th Century Tea Trade, Leisure Time, and the Spread of Knowledge
Cook and Clive: Discoverers, Collectors and Conquerors of the Enlightenment
Strains on the Universality of the Enlightenment
The Enlightenment, Empire, and Colonization: Burke vs. Hastings
Enlightenment or Empire
18th Century Land Grabbing
The Industrial Revolution and the Transition of Non-Renewable Energy
The Seven Years' War and Colonial Revolutions
Napoleon, Spain, the Colonies, and Imperial Crises
Human Rights and the Meaning of Membership within Societies
Napoleon, New Nations, and Total War
The Ottoman Empire's 19th Century Tanzimat Reform
The Early 19th Century Market Revolution
The Global Upheavals of the Mid-19th Century
The Train, the Rifle, and the Industrial Revolution
Transition in India: Last of the Mughals
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 and Its Ramifications
Darwin's Effect on 19th Century Ideas
Factors Which Led to the Solidifying of Nation States
1868 Japan: The Meiji Restoration
1871: Germany Becomes a Nation
North American Nation-Building
19th Century Changing Concepts of Labor
The Benefits of Comparative Advantage
Migration after the Age of Revolutions
Creating 19th Century Global Free Trade
The Expanding 19th Century Capitalist System
The Second Industrial Revolution
The Closing of the American Frontier
Africa's Second Imperial Wave
Early 20th Century American Imperialism
1894-1905: Japan's Imperial Wave in Asia
Rashid Rida and 19th Century Islamic Modernization
19th Century Pan-Islam and Zionism Movements
19th Century Global Export-Led Growth
Indian Wars and Mass Slaughter of Bison
The Suez Canal's Effect on the Malayan Tiger
1890-1914: Savage Wars of Peace
1900-1909: Russian and Turkish Dynasties
1899-1911 The End of the Qing Dynasty
The 1910 Mexican Revolution
The Panic of 1907
Turn-of-the-Century Civilization and its Discontents
20th Century Questioning of Reason
Late 19th Century Anxieties of Race
The First World War
The End of WWI and the Attempt at Global Peace
The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919
The Wilson-Lenin Moment
1919 Self-Determination Movements in India
Post-WWI European Peace and Global Colonial Upheaval
1929 Economic Collapse
Changes in Capitalism between the Wars
1918-1945 Rethinking Economies