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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Darwin's Effect on 19th Century Ideas
Notes taken on October 27, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
Charles Darwin
developed an early fascination with natural history
educated at Edinburgh and Cambridge
advisers encouraged him to explore his world
a world that was becoming both interconnected and interdependent
an example in which the worlds horizons were opening up
technological revolutions
French Revolution
advent of free trade
embarked on a five year journey
H.M.S. Beagle
South America
Galapagos Islands
gathered evidence of
marine invertebrate
fascinated by artifacts he gathered from various places in the world
a good observer of animal behavior
last book was a book about earth worms
1839 The Voyage of the Beagle
on trip, he took notes and he doodled
1850 On the Origin of Species
note the singular origin to the plural species
he wanted to help explain diversification in nature
variation and adaptation take place over time
concluded that insects became more speciated over time
they were not born different, they evolved to become different
1871 The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex
his major work
based on his lifetime of observation of
animals from around the world
argued for a concept of human evolution and sexual selection
all humans are one species
all species share some fundamental propensities
from common descent we get diversity
humans among other species belong to a single animal kingdom
"Man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy which feels for the most debased, with benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creature, with his god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system, with all these exalted powers, man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin."
powerful and revolutionary words
and you can imagine the brouhaha that would be produced by words such as these
this was a blow to theories about
living beings
global history
until Darwin came along, the prevailing dogma was that humans were fundamentally different
different species obeyed different laws
people came from entirely different origins
this idea of a fundamental species differentiation among humans was a theory called pluralism
used phrenology to examine skulls to determine which race people belonged to
put negros at the bottom of the ladder of superiority and inferiority
people had to be kept in their places since they were meant to be separate
racial argument for slavery
physical characteristics of people showed that we belonged to different races which should stay separate
along comes Charles Darwin
argued that the laws of natural selection applied to all creatures
arguing for a different model
in his tree of life, humans all branch from a shared trunk
Africans, Indians, Europeans
it's often forgotten that he was a lifelong abolitionist and a profound humanitarian and his science buttressed his moral code
he work in his journal The Voyage of Chronicle of the Beagle that he was shocked at the sight of slavery in Brazil and in South Africa