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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
20th Century Questioning of Reason
Notes taken on February 10, 2018 by Edward Tanguay
protest movements
the right to be included in public life
the right to be included in the interdependent system of economies
suffragettes argued that they deserved these rights because they were reasonable creatures as well
people began to wonder about this faith in the ability of people to reason
could rationality from the 18th century characterize the nature of the modern age
where all humans capable of being reasonable creatures
this faith began to be infected by anxiety
economic forces were creating irrational creatures
modernity and modernization was producing the opposite of what the Enlightenment figures had once optimistically projected forward
mass society was becoming a concern
no longer were cities the home of gentlemen salons
they were becoming the centers of consumption, often out of control
cities became crowded, noisy, crime-ridden spaces that were not the products of the Enlightenment that was once promised
villages were coming apart and losing their traditions
Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)
Le pont Boïeldieu à Rouen, soleil couchant, temps brumeux (1896)
the city is crowded and gray
the smoke and fumes are the dominant factor
he also had beautiful paintings of the countryside
he was capturing here the sense that the community is being lost and replaced with society
the church and mosque are no longer the buildings that anchor the community
but factories
was pulling back the veil
disclose something more primeval about our natures
order was being undone
the philosophers of the 18th century had indicated that we should not worry since we all have an innate capacity to reason
but people were beginning to worry
the social sciences
resulted from an emerging concern for society
John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946)
not just an economist but in many ways a sociologist, psychologist, political scientist
sociology, psychology and political science were all disciplines born in the late 19th century
these sciences were torn between an earlier optimism about an Enlightenment faith and the discontents about what modernization was breeding
the mechanism creating this world threatened to despoil individual's singularity and particularity
Max Weber (1864-1920)
made the case for modernization
became the founder of modern sociology
the nature of modernization subjective human beings to ubiquitous rules, routines, enforced punctuality, mindless toil, losing their souls, and disenchantment with everyday life, and being governed by bureaucracy, a word that in the 20th century gained increasing currency as people felt that they were being ruled by these invisible, inanimate organizations
Protestantism was an important force in producing capitalism
also concerned that this newly, inquisitive self, this consumer, was losing their soul
modernization threatened to create a utopian world in which machines are masquerading as men
José Enrique Rodó (1871-1917)
denounced materialism
Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948)
nobody who incarnated this materialist spirit than the India Mahatma Gandhi
wears very little
demonstrates the denial of material possessions
suggests that we should go back to tradition
making clothes that we make for ourselves
it gets destroyed in the course of interdependence
simple work for self-sufficiency
many started to begin to argue against the Enlightenment movement
we are much more governed by passion, unreason and desire
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
the founder in some respects of psychology
1900 The Interpretation of Dreams
you can get a glimpse of people's inner worlds
it is full of darkness, passion, and desire, and not ration, calculating intention
was fascinated by the role of mythology
Greek myths and other myths that told tales of our inner lives
humans are at their base sexual animals with basic passions, not just the calculating, possessive, individualists seeking property and maximizing their utilities
this was not altogether new
what he did was to systematize this thought and burrowed the deepest
we are not just ruled by our consciousness but we carried around with an an engine of unconsciousness
these desires need to be process or repressed and expressed in other ways
so the triumph of civilization was not the triumph of reason
but our ability to contain, repress, and channel ourselves
we see the emergence of the modern social sciences
seeking to explain the modern condition and its pathologies
psychology associated with criminology
women were seen by many to be the most vulnerable
Cesar Lombroso (1835–1909)
book: La Donna Delinquente
the delinquent woman
her pose on the cover of his book: one of temptation in front of pigs
the dark side of human nature gained focus in the 20th century
something in the air that was producing these anxieties even when modernity was promising so much