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Notes on video lecture:
1945: Hour Zero
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
prescient, destroyed, Italy, liquidate, World, Europe, civilization, territories, Crow, alike, disable, obedient, school, enslaved, Missouri, Stunde, Poland, unstable, technocratic, communist, capitalism, administrators, Trotskyite, Yalta, Vienna, Burma, modern, everyone, 50, government, Germany, debased, devastation, factories, overthrow, wreckage
Zero Hour, or "             Null"
"everything is                    and we are starting over from scratch"
total war
means if your military situation is                 , you might not just lose the war, you might lose everything, e.g. be                  or murdered
nations in arms
mobilizing men, women and children
everyone in the war effort, everyone working in, for, or around the government
the war was affecting                 
the year of 1944
the bloodiest year of fighting
fighting fanatically from strong, fortified positions of defense
battle lines
Europe 1944
Eastern front: took a year to move into             
Italian front: took a year to move up into Northern           
French front: took a year to move across the channel and to border of               
after Italy had gone out of war, took six months to                    the German empire
Americans and Allies turned tide and started moving toward Japan
maintained supplies to the Chinese
fighting in           
the world of 1945
Germany carved up into Allied zones of occupation
             was also divided into zones of occupation
quit the war before their country was invaded and fought over from one end to the other as Germany was
but American bombing raids destroyed over     % of many cities
air raid on Tokyo in March 1945 killed about 100,000 people
atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
in the case of fire raids and the atomic bombs, the Allies were desperate to use any means they had to stop the war and saw cities as military targets
both sides were becoming                in their attitude toward human life
the Allies knew they were doing horrifying things to win the war
bombing cities in order to end the war does not equate to constructing death                    to carry out the genocides of a whole people whom they hoped to enslave and then exterminate
it was clear that this war was pushing human                          to the brink, where people are creating destructive powers that are beyond human reason and human spirituality, and then the war ended
the end of the war
no German                      to take a surrender, the American regarded the German government "as nothing, as                 "
they took a surrender from German generals in the field in a simple little ceremony in a French              house
Allies allowed a Japanese government to remain
allowed Japanese emperor to remain in power
formal surrender ceremony on Battleship                 , September 1945
visions of modern society looking forward after the war
era of high modernism: government planning as its height
high liberalism
the war was thought of rescuing the world from tyranny and liberals had always thought of themselves as tyrants
the ideals that Americans had stood for in the war made it harder to maintain the regime of Jim          in the American South
discover society
society of an object that would be the focal point of engineering
society as something I manipulate through the choices of big thinking planners
economic management: the demands of having to manage large                        all over the world, and manage whole economies
urban management: mayors planning and managing large-scale cities
war management
access to raw materials
allocation of production facilities
use of man-power
by the end of the 1940s there was a sense that you "wanted to be             "
a level of cultural conformity
"if you're not modern yet, we want to make you modern"
top-down organizers of cities and societies
lessons from the war
who were the models of success who showed people and countries the way of the future?
1. United States
James Burnham, "Managerial Revolution"
American, Princeton graduate
was an early                    in the 1930s but became disillusioned with the Stalinist communist party
late 30s became                     
eventually became an American right wing conservative, eventually earned accolades by Ronald Reagan
1940s book "Managerial Revolution"
Soviet Union, United States, is all becoming pretty much alike, its a matter of big organizations run by                          managers who are going to arrange everything in society
the rule of the                             , on a gigantic scale
George Orwell, "1984"
he is reacting to Burnham
a world dominated by endlessly warring governments, very much           , dominated by powerful bureaucrats
F.A. Hayek, "The Road to Serfdom", 1944
visions like those of James Burnham are extremely                   , and that people need to fight it.
a European liberal, deeply liberal from the old school, almost a revival of Adam Smith or John Stuart Mill
asked the question: who will buy the goods?
no renewal of the war
also no renewal of the Great Depression
maintain wartime alliance
               Germany and Japan
international cooperation, new institutions
United Nations
building a functioning world economy
much more concerned about this than the Soviets
concerned with world trade collapsing as it did in 1929
how to end empires and trusteeships, part of the old world that needs to be swept away
open up the world for opportunities for American business
in the 1930s, the British put up a trade wall around the British Empire and so some of the post-war push for an open global economy was a conflict not only with the Soviets, but with the British, and partly with the French
2. Soviet Union
Stalin's meeting with the Allies
February 1945 meet in            on Black Sea
July 1945 in Potsdam
Truman just became president in April
Stalin's concerns
the future of the Soviet Union was bound up with the future of communism and the world revolutionary agenda
the better communism did, the weaker                      became, the more secure the Soviet Union would be
territorial expansion
protective barrier
disable Germany and Japan
maintain wartime alliance as long as possible
maintain a global network of                  communist parties
likely points of friction in 1945
Soviets taking chunks out of the expanded German Reich
moving the whole country of Poland about 150 miles to the west
British and France had gone to war in 1939 to fight for the security of             
Poland's important to Americans as well
joint duties in Germany
running up against each other, having to work together, even though your systems are different
in non-communist countries which have communist groups who are trying to                    the country
France and Italy, where these are domestic classes about the future of their country
issues of trade and exchange


rankle, v. to cause irritation or deep bitterness  "The Soviets took chunks out of the expanded German Reich and moved the whole country of Poland about 150 miles to the west, which rankled the British and French who had gone to war in 1939 to fight for the security of Poland."
prescient, adj. [PRESS-ee-ahnt] having knowledge of coming events;, foreseeing, conscious beforehand  "F.A. Hayek's message in the book 'The Road to Serfdom' suggested that visions like those of James Burnham are extremely prescient, and that people need to fight it."

Spelling Corrections:

1914: Schizophrenic Germany
1914: The Balkan Whirlpool
1914: From Balkan Crisis to War
1914-1916: All War Plans Fail Horribly
The 1916 Missed Opportunity for Peace
WWI Pushes Warring Countries Toward Total States
Why the Allies Won World War One
Post-WWI: Filling the Void of Collapsed Empires
Post-WWI Communism vs. Anti-Communism
Post World War I: The Age of Uncertainty
1910s/1920s: Modern Women
The World of 1930
The 1930s World Crisis
1930s: The Decade of Contingency
America's Entry into World War II
WWII: Strategies for Total War
1945: Hour Zero
Post WWII: Imagining New Countries
Conflicts in Postwar Nation Building
The Two Europes That Emerged After WWII
1947 China: Undesirable Communists vs. Flawed Nationalists
Post WWII: The Age of America
Reasons for the Korean War
How WWIII was Avoided in the Korean War
1950-1952: The Cold War Comes to Main Street
1950-1954: The H-Bomb and the Nuclear Revolution
1950s: Loosening Empires and Building Confederations
The Emergence of the Third World
1958-1962: The World at the Brink
Third World Proxy Wars of the 1950s and 1960s
Managerial States and the Transnational Disruption of 1968
1970s Obstacles to Reducing Cold War Tensions
1970s Democratic Socialism Becomes a Non-Choice
1980s Political Polarization
1980s: Global Capitalism Transformed