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Notes on video lecture:
Why the Allies Won World War One
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Bulgaria, long, Sultan, seas, spent, Salonika, convoys, submarine, politicians, mutinied, budged, aircraft, Ludendorff, Australians, Hindenburg, Bolshevik, Turks, Pasha, best, terrible, military, Wilhelm, scientific, interval, gas, Charles, casualties, Litovsk, communists, psychologically, Finland, 1917, defensive
America officially entered WWI in April         , and even in early 1918, it was not clear who was going to win the war
situation in 1917
Britain and France
in terms of lack of military advancement and sheer                     , both countries had another                  year
yes the Americans had joined the war in April 1917 but the American soldiers were just being trained to fight and hardly any are engaging in combat in France
in France, the Germans were moving into                    fortifications and letting the allies come at them and beat themselves bloody
French armies are failing so badly that portions of the army                  against their officers
in northern France, British and their imperial allies the Canadians and                        are launching offensives which are causing 4,000 casualties a day for weeks
the front hadn't              much in over three years of fighting
1917 Russian Revolution
                     take over in late 1917 cutting any deal they can to get the war over
Treaty of Brest-              
March 1918
between new                    government and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria,                 , Turkey) which ended Russia's participation in the war
renounced Russia's claims on Poland,               , Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania
Central Powers
early 1918, expanded far into what had been the Russian Empire
down into the Balkans
British and French fighting at                  in Greece
British driving up against the           
Italians attacking the Austrians in the Alps but suffered a considerable defeat
early 1918: war is not going well for the Allies
playing for the          run
we're blocking Germans with naval forces
Allies looking toward 1919-1920
strategy dominated by Ludendorff
Erich                      (1865-1937)
August 1916 became joint head with Hindenburg to manage the war
1935: published "Der Totale Krieg"
"peace is merely an                  between wars"
had rivalry with                     , told him that him handing over power to Hitler would bring ruin to Germany
Ludendorff wants to have a decisive battle: move all eastern soldiers to the west.
war in first half of 1918
five German offensives in west
break open big holes in Allied lines
British hold well
Germans are using their          forces and running out of steam
war in second half of 1918
Germans feel           , not just in formal military terms but                                spent the way someone feels who has made what they think is their maximum effort yet has not achieved anything near their goal
Instead of letting the Allies continue to beat themselves up against the German lines, the German High Command weakened their military considerably by exhibiting a particular mix of tactical arrogance and strategic political insecurity wanting somehow to redeem everything by winning that one decisive battle, yearning for that great gamble one more time, just as they had done with their strategy on unrestricted                    warfare in 1917, another gamble that did not pay off. And so in the summer of 1918 just as German power and moral was reaching its nadir, the fresh and newly trained American forces were beginning to move into significant combat action in France.
so why did the war turn the way it did in 1918
1. Germany made                  choices that didn't turn out the way they had hoped
2. The Allies now with America in the war controlled the          and dominated much of the access to raw materials
Allies largely took care of the German submarine threat by developing the concept of ship                in which merchant ships had naval escorts to protect them
3. Had access to help from imperial partners from Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and even from India, not only as military powers but as sources of labor and materials.
4. Increasing advantage in leveraging                      advantages: caught up to and exceeded the Germans in the quality of their poison       , also developed highly sophisticated intelligence technologies and                  in particular.
5. Leadership and Resilience: David Lloyd George, George Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson, like them or dislike them, these were gifted                       : extremely able to articulate national objectives and rally people to a cause. Contrast this with Kaiser                in Germany who didn't even make speeches in public since his advisers were afraid to let him speak in public for fear of what he would say. In Austria, the aging emperor Franz Joseph had passed away and in 1918 the Habsburg emperor was                I, not a charismatic speech maker at all, since, that's just not the kind of thing emperors do. And in Turkey, the Ottoman Empire was headed by a figurehead             , but the real source of power was Enver           , a decent politician but not someone who is used to rallying the Turkish people on the stump. So in a conflict among countries ramping themselves up into total states, strained to the limits of what they can do, the resilience of the Allied countries and their leaders, their ability to adapt under enormous pressure, turned out to be a key measure of who would last out the war. At the end of the summer in 1918, what surprised most people was how suddenly the Central Powers, having lost their bid to win the war, just seemed to fall apart and crack, and in November 1918, it was all over."
1914: Schizophrenic Germany
1914: The Balkan Whirlpool
1914: From Balkan Crisis to War
1914-1916: All War Plans Fail Horribly
The 1916 Missed Opportunity for Peace
WWI Pushes Warring Countries Toward Total States
Why the Allies Won World War One
Post-WWI: Filling the Void of Collapsed Empires
Post-WWI Communism vs. Anti-Communism
Post World War I: The Age of Uncertainty
1910s/1920s: Modern Women
The World of 1930
The 1930s World Crisis
1930s: The Decade of Contingency
America's Entry into World War II
WWII: Strategies for Total War
1945: Hour Zero
Post WWII: Imagining New Countries
Conflicts in Postwar Nation Building
The Two Europes That Emerged After WWII
1947 China: Undesirable Communists vs. Flawed Nationalists
Post WWII: The Age of America
Reasons for the Korean War
How WWIII was Avoided in the Korean War
1950-1952: The Cold War Comes to Main Street
1950-1954: The H-Bomb and the Nuclear Revolution
1950s: Loosening Empires and Building Confederations
The Emergence of the Third World
1958-1962: The World at the Brink
Third World Proxy Wars of the 1950s and 1960s
Managerial States and the Transnational Disruption of 1968
1970s Obstacles to Reducing Cold War Tensions
1970s Democratic Socialism Becomes a Non-Choice
1980s Political Polarization
1980s: Global Capitalism Transformed