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Notes on video lecture:
Post-WWI Communism vs. Anti-Communism
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
democracy, renewal, vanguard, armies, provisional, czar, Barcelona, peasants, Edwardian, literature, parliament, covert, intermediate, DNA, suffered, mesmeric, ousting, Petrograd, yoga, Romonov, widows, assembly, Bolsheviks, scares, resources, liability, Benito, polymath, Germany, Mahatma, 1917, Taiwan, Winter, Kerensky, hybrid, empower, dominion, 1975, activism, embryonic, unstable, empires, 1920s, Tagore, land, Kronstadt, abdicates, ashram
one of the biggest effects of World War One was the rise of modern communism and the communism vs. anti-communism split was the biggest fault line of the new politics of the           
ruling parties were not able to prevent the war, communism was portrayed as a solution that would prevent war
what takes the place of those shattered               
communist revolutions had disciplined cells of organized people ready to act proved to be an advantage in a period of chaos
ruling elite is part of a national tradition political movement
end of 1800s, Russia is all about emphasizing the nation of Russia, and had an anti-Jewish sentiment
Russian people
polarized Russian politics: people vs.         
Russia has unusually weak                          institutions, nobility has aligned itself with the czar
1905 the czar reluctantly created a                     , albeit a weak parliament
you have this empire that, because it has such weak intermediate institutions, also has a relatively weak state apparatus, a decent apparatus for repression, but for administration it was not efficient
doesn't have an apparatus to control the                    of the country as efficiently as some of the other countries can
basic services break down, e.g. support for              of war veterans
getting food to supplies to the             
by early         , the strain was becoming too much
end of the empire
czar                    in early 1917
Russian creates a provisional republic
organized elections in late 1917
basically democratic socialist parties
many of the socialist revolutionaries were mainly concerned with          reform
they didn't want to take the land away from the rich nobles and give it to the state, they wanted to give it to the poor                 
the                      won 30% of vote in 1917
February Revolution of 1917
Alexander                  (1881-1970)
major political leader before and during the Russian Revolutions of 1917
served as the second Prime Minister of the Russian Provisional Government until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin in the October Revolution
provisional government
October Revolution
Bolshevism is not about being a mass movement in this era, but basically says, "masses need to be led by a revolutionary                 , members must totally submit to party discipline", those who rose to the top such as Lenin had a "tactical single mindedness"
painting: The Pogrom of the              Palace (1917), by Ivan Vladimirov
the winter palace was where the                        government had set up its headquarters
The French Revolution in 1789 was primarily against the exclusive control of government by hereditary aristocracy, these issues are very much alive and well in Russia in 1917 and 1918.
Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
served as the leader of the Russian SFSR from 1917, and then concurrently as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1922, until his death in 1924
family had a long history of                  against he czar
a true internationalist revolutionary in his orientation, had intents to overthrow the German government as well even though they helped him
1917 arrives in                   
Leon Trotsky (1879-1940)
Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army
initially a supporter of the Menshevik Internationalists
joined the Bolsheviks immediately prior to the 1917 October Revolution
Jewish, committed to the revolutionary
The German government in WWI conducted a              action of putting Lenin into a sealed train car and sending him into Russia "like a virus" to increase unrest of the government and knock Russia out of the war.
end of 1917: Bolsheviks take over
the Bolsheviks listened to the constituent                  that was elected and met at the beginning of 1918, but then the Bolsheviks sent them home
there were some revolutions against the revolutions, attempts on Lenin's life
no quick counter to the Bolshevik seizure of power
late 1918, civil war: revolutionary appalled by seizure of private property
Bolsheviks control Moscow and Petrograd
Bolsheviks want to get Russia out of the war
Allies land some troops to try to help the White Army fight the Red Army
White Army: loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War (1917–1923)
Americans very quickly get tired of this support, find it pointless and withdraw
allies do not intervene in full strength
on July 17, 1918 the Bolsheviks killed the czar and his family to show that there was no bridge going back to the                dynasty
Soviet government survives but at times their future was                 
1921-22: the situation settles down and the Bolsheviks gain tighter and tighter control
European revolutions and counter-revolutions
Hungary, Germany, Poland,                   
Hungary: communist revolution succeeds
Communism was so threatening with its war against established religion, against private property, and its agenda to overthrow society so thoroughly, there arose a huge and popular reaction against it. Fear of communism became a powerful force of                for the conservative movements and a rallying point as powerful or more powerful than communism itself.
in the violent fights that broke out between communism and anti-communism, the liberalism which had grown strong in the late 19th century                 
the idea of liberalism ultimately survives in many countries:                survives the after-effects of the Bolshevik revolution and set up a republic
liberalism does not have a stance of having a strong government or a strong army, but the opposite and in times like the early 1920s, that's a                   
the morphing of political movements after WWI
national tradition
1900s they believe in kings and emperors, by 1920s their influence is gone
moving to fascism
new political movement: fascism
drew from revolutionary socialists, national conservatives and national traditionalists
             Mussolini (1883-1945)
Italian politician, journalist and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister 1922 to his                in 1943
ruled constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped all pretense of                    and set up a dictatorship that ruled the country until 1943
In the 1920s what started taking the place of a spectrum of political beliefs was a new movement called fascism, a              which attracted those who believed in the purity of the nation and the defense of national traditions, it added some of the top-down, modernizing supporters of the national conservatives, especially people who had grown intolerant of democracy and party politics. The astounding characteristic of fascism, however, was that it also attracted many of those from the complete opposite side of the political spectrum, the revolutionary socialists who also wanted a strongly nationalist agenda. There's no better example for fascism and the mixed political        it represented than Benito Mussolini, who himself had been a revolutionary socialist in fact an editor of one of the leading socialist newspapers in Italy, yet throughout WWI, becomes a fervent supporter of Italy in the war, and ends up founding the fascist movement in Italy which ultimately became hostile to the socialist movement from which Mussolini originally came.
new political movement: communism
members coming from revolutionary socialists (those who weren't moving toward fascism)
began organizing itself internationally
in the 1920s it is no longer fashionable to talk about the struggle for markets and natural resources among the liberal democracies
anti-imperialist movements
1800s: keep the foreigners out (e.g. England, France, Dutch)
after WWI: take over the                    state the foreigners have created, e.g. India
uses vocabulary from the foreigners themselves, e.g. picking up the ideology of democratic revolutions, against governments which rule without the consent of the people
also picking up vocabulary of communist movement
Rabindranath              (1861-1941)
a Bengali                  (expertise in many different subject areas) who reshaped his region's literature and music
first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in                     
his seemingly                  personality, flowing hair, and otherworldly dress earned him a prophet-like reputation in the West
emphasized the spiritual quality of rural India, the idea of the             , a spiritual hermitage in which         , music study or religious instruction is practiced
               Gandhi (1869-1948)
preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India
1920: three-piece suits, British lawyer, a perfect                    gentleman, but then switched to dress in more of a traditional and simpler Indian style
practices law among the Indian ex-patriots in South Africa
becomes an opponent to British discrimination and eventually to British rule, believes Indians need to                themselves
his notion of anti-imperialism is a fusion of both western ideas and Indian ideas, believes there should be a nation-state called India organized along Western lines but needs to be infused with spiritual qualities expressed by writers like Tagore
in 1910s Indian congress would have like to have the                  status that Canada and Australians had
places not scarred by WWI
foreign news: New York Times, October 17, 1919: lots of stories on the first page about battles of the Reds vs. Whites in Russia
local news: many stories about communist              in the United States
problems between management and labor
stories about strikers
news stories about communists and communism are numerous
general strike is successful
striker organizing into military groups
1923: Spanish government becomes a military dictatorship in response to communist uprisings
Shanghai 1925-1927
1925 anti-foreign unrest, imperial policemen fire into a crowd
Chiang Kai-Shek (1887-        )
organizes the non-communists against the communists
influential member of the Kuomintang (KMT), or Nationalist Party, and was a close ally of Sun Yat-sen
took Sun's place as leader of the KMT when Sun died in 1925
1949 retreated his government to             , ruled till his death in 1975
1914: Schizophrenic Germany
1914: The Balkan Whirlpool
1914: From Balkan Crisis to War
1914-1916: All War Plans Fail Horribly
The 1916 Missed Opportunity for Peace
WWI Pushes Warring Countries Toward Total States
Why the Allies Won World War One
Post-WWI: Filling the Void of Collapsed Empires
Post-WWI Communism vs. Anti-Communism
Post World War I: The Age of Uncertainty
1910s/1920s: Modern Women
The World of 1930
The 1930s World Crisis
1930s: The Decade of Contingency
America's Entry into World War II
WWII: Strategies for Total War
1945: Hour Zero
Post WWII: Imagining New Countries
Conflicts in Postwar Nation Building
The Two Europes That Emerged After WWII
1947 China: Undesirable Communists vs. Flawed Nationalists
Post WWII: The Age of America
Reasons for the Korean War
How WWIII was Avoided in the Korean War
1950-1952: The Cold War Comes to Main Street
1950-1954: The H-Bomb and the Nuclear Revolution
1950s: Loosening Empires and Building Confederations
The Emergence of the Third World
1958-1962: The World at the Brink
Third World Proxy Wars of the 1950s and 1960s
Managerial States and the Transnational Disruption of 1968
1970s Obstacles to Reducing Cold War Tensions
1970s Democratic Socialism Becomes a Non-Choice
1980s Political Polarization
1980s: Global Capitalism Transformed