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Notes on video lecture:
1914-1916: All War Plans Fail Horribly
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Western, Ottoman, British, Gallipoli, asphyxiate, Serbians, bleed, social, Balkans, Russians, crossroads, Somme, overextended, artillery, submarines, Verdun, million, Brusilov, Sardinia, Crimean, Belgium, British, French, kit, failed, Marne, economic
all elaborate plans to win the war are failing
vast plans moving millions of men, huge amounts of                   , careful railway time tables comes to bloody wreckage
war starts out with              unity
management vs. working class now takes a second seat to war-time unity as countries rally to their flags
what did countries expect of WWI?
expected what had happened in the past
Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905, lasted 2 years
Franco-Prussian 1870-1871, lasted 1 year
               War 1853-1856, lasted 3 years
conflict between Russian Empire vs. French, British,                Empires plus Kingdom of                 
they expected a violent clash of armies and a quick outcome, that's not what happened
key decision: what to do about               
had been a lynchpin of European politics since 1830s
France and Germany had to decide who would enter Belgium first to secure the territory
Germany decided to invade first to gain high ground, knowing it would bring the                into the war
after Germany invaded Belgium, British joined the war
Germans invasion of Belgium did not bring them success in the                Front
French launching attacks again German frontier, collapse in bloody failure
discovering that the defensive power of modern weapons are devastating with men and cavalry charge out in the open
German armies in Belgium sweep down into France from the north heading toward Paris (Schlieffen Plan)
Schlieffen Plan
avoid a two-front war by concentrating troops in the West and quickly defeating the French and then, if necessary, rushing those troops by rail to the East to face the Russians before they had time to mobilize fully
Battle of the           
Sep 5-12, 1914
battle effectively ended the month long German offensive that opened the war and had reached the outskirts of Paris
six French field armies and one British army along the Marne River
Germans were                         
The Western Front
the front of the war that the war ground down to after the German defeat at the Battle of the Marne
the war in the East
                 don't get very far
                 invade into Bosnia but are driven back by the Austrians
Serbia occupied by Central Powers, the battle line by 1915 pushed south to border with Greece
1915: war begins widening rapidly
Japan, a treaty ally of England, joined on England's side in the war
Japan uses this as an opportunity to occupy German territory on the Chinese mainland
Japanese occupy German-held islands in the Pacific
Ottoman Empire joins with Germany, Austria and Bulgaria to form a united front
declare Holy War against British and French
colonies in Africa
some minor wars with each other in jungles of Africa
British involved in battles against the Turks in Asia
gas and                     
combatants begin using the new marvels of chemistry against each other, releasing poison gas that when inhaled will cause the lungs to inflame and                      people
soldiers find that gas masks are part of their standard       
Germans advancing in submarine technology to disrupt world trade and offset                naval advantages
1915 end of illusions of quick war
countries realize that that initial war plans did not work, so they make their next plans
                   Campaign
also New Zealand and Australian troops
encounters modern Turkish army
goal was to knock Turkey out of the war but ultimately failed
countries realize they are straining their economies just to produce enough shells to fight this war
realize that war is going to be prolonged
once so many citizens are dying, the countries had to develop war aimed that matched
dismantle the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires
the war moved rapidly from a conflict in the                to a war to determine the future existence of multiple empires
1916: German offensive plans fail
Germans develop elaborate plans for war-winning offensives
center on the Western Front
Germans set out to wage a battle in which they will            the French army to death, a war of attrition, one which will make the French nation not be able to stand to continue the war. They pick as this blood bath a place called             .
Battle of Verdun, Feb-Dec 1916
714,231 casualties, 377,231 on the French side and 337,000 on the German one, an average of 70,000 casualties for each of the ten months of the battle
intensify submarine warfare
sinking ships which are carrying raw materials from America
submarine war is effective but not effective enough
Americans warn the Germans that if their submarines sink American ships or disrupt American trade, the Americans will join the war on the side of the British and the             .
1916: Allies offensive plans fail
                 Offensive
successful Russians offensive aimed at debilitating the Austrians, but it hurts the Russians just as bad
took place in what today is the Ukraine
Battle of the           
the battle was one of the largest of World War I, in which more than a                men were wounded or killed, making it one of humanity's bloodiest battles
20,000 British casualties on the very first day of fighting, July 1, 1916
conclusion
every side has tried its grand big to win the war and none of it is working, all the plans have             
all nations involved are feeling the strain: loss of lives, financial losses,                  strain
each side is thinking: where is this going to go now, how can we win the war?
this creates a very interesting moment, between August 1916 and January 1917, a                      were many things were possible
1914: Schizophrenic Germany
1914: The Balkan Whirlpool
1914: From Balkan Crisis to War
1914-1916: All War Plans Fail Horribly
The 1916 Missed Opportunity for Peace
WWI Pushes Warring Countries Toward Total States
Why the Allies Won World War One
Post-WWI: Filling the Void of Collapsed Empires
Post-WWI Communism vs. Anti-Communism
Post World War I: The Age of Uncertainty
1910s/1920s: Modern Women
The World of 1930
The 1930s World Crisis
1930s: The Decade of Contingency
America's Entry into World War II
WWII: Strategies for Total War
1945: Hour Zero
Post WWII: Imagining New Countries
Conflicts in Postwar Nation Building
The Two Europes That Emerged After WWII
1947 China: Undesirable Communists vs. Flawed Nationalists
Post WWII: The Age of America
Reasons for the Korean War
How WWIII was Avoided in the Korean War
1950-1952: The Cold War Comes to Main Street
1950-1954: The H-Bomb and the Nuclear Revolution
1950s: Loosening Empires and Building Confederations
The Emergence of the Third World
1958-1962: The World at the Brink
Third World Proxy Wars of the 1950s and 1960s
Managerial States and the Transnational Disruption of 1968
1970s Obstacles to Reducing Cold War Tensions
1970s Democratic Socialism Becomes a Non-Choice
1980s Political Polarization
1980s: Global Capitalism Transformed