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Notes on video lecture:
The Emergence of the Third World
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
choke, government, Batista, poverty, tariffs, Abbas, Vietnam, redistribute, dismantling, Indonesia, financially, client, Japan, Algeria, inherited, Guevara, modernization, communist, reducing, hero, same, Sinai, meddle, junior, Canada, property, fragility, rebellions, imperialist, key, Hawaii, predatory, Nehru, credit, Brazil, Sukarno, Nehru, Nasser, allies, nationalists, hatred, rebels, Castro, court, high, objects, capital, dams, Third, money, British, market, Brotherhood, laboratories, future, uncommitted, Mboya, colonial, depress, Stalin, arm, Israelis, Suez, Bandung, Nkrumah
the          Canal background tension
how does the United States reconcile its anti-                   goals with the imperialist goals of the British and French
imperial interests are creating colonial                      that are playing into the hands of the communists
the United States wants to be on the side of aspiring                          for the sake of its anti-communist confederation
that puts it in conflict with the empires, yet these empires are their             , that's the tension which came to a head in 1956 with the Suez Canal
1954: French lost Indochina
French were locked in an intense struggle to retain               , it's North African department of France
Egypt under Nasser
Nasser overthrows 1952 government, cracked down on Muslim                        and ousted president
1956 nationalizes Suez Canal
obliges                to withdraw their forces from Egypt, forces that had been their since 1882, also because of a dispute over the Suez Canal
the French don't like Nasserian Egypt either since they think he is supporting Algerian             
British see Nasser's move on Suez Canal as a way to cut one of their historic imperial life lines
British and French secretly collude with the                  so that all three countries launch a joint military occupation which will seize the Suez Canal while the Israelis will attack Egypt in Sinai
Lester B. Pearson from              had proposed a UN peacekeeping force
U.S. supported this and put pressure on the British                       
unlike 1882, the British and the French had to take a humiliating withdrawal, Israelis forced to withdraw from           
significance of the Suez Canal outcome
for the West: Americans had reaffirmed the centrality of the anti-communist confederation
British and France began looking toward the                        of their empires as something that was inevitable
the process of decolonization accelerated rapidly
as French and British gave up their                  identity, they started focusing on European identity
and some of this European identity excluded the United States, as there was hostility toward the U.S. coming out of the Suez Canal crisis
for the East, it gave the Soviet Union more opportunity for taking sides in the Middle East, finding states who wanted Soviet        supplies
to the Soviet Union, Nasser was a          who stood up to the west and vindicated the cause of nationalism
Nasser symbolized the new power of the            World
Third World
countries not included in NATO or Communist Bloc, the                        middle
from the point of view of the superpowers
Third World countries were very important as               
1. dependent patron/             relationships
not formal colonies but              partners on one side or the other
2. development models
experimental                          for American or communist ideas about development
enormous infrastructure projects such as          to generate electricity
3. geopolitical locations and strategic pivots
to control            points to important areas of the world
4. examples of authenticity and liberation
striving against hierarchical oppression
idealized image of "the natural person", e.g. Che               , who became a symbol of revolution against oppression
5. in all the Third World seemed important
from the point of view of Third World countries
a non-aligned movement
Sukarno
1955 president Sukarno in                   
organized the                Conference to unite developing Asian and African countries into a non-aligned movement to counter the competing superpowers at the time
interesting that China also attended
Jawaharlal           
prime minister of India from 1947-1964
there was a notion that whichever way the Third World swung would determine              balance of power between the rival blocks
leaders felt pressured to be subjects
the shape of their countries had been shaped by and                    from imperial rule
kind of government
property laws
           system
armies
political vocabulary
shaped by the anti-                       struggle
they are simultaneously products of imperial rule and the              of imperial rule
decolonization was going on globally in the 1950s and 1960s, little countries getting their independence but with weighted dependence toward the superpowers
fragility
structure of some of these states are very small
e.g. one radio station, one newspaper, a small               
loyal army units you can count on might be a few battalions
leaders were conscious of what it would take for someone to suddenly overthrow them and how foreigners might              in the affairs of your country
affected deals they made to buy goods, promises they made, relations they entered into
leaders were both worried by their                    and tempted by it
independence
want to feel more independent
leaders are trying to manipulate the foreigners to serve their interests
modernization
catching up
lifting their people out of               
this was a very strong notion for Third World countries
there were multiple meanings of                           
banks
who controls the modernized banks in my country?
who gets access to credit in             ?
key industries
what is the relationship of my government to        industries: tin, copper, etc.
land
are you satisfied by who owns land or do you need to                          it?
trade
do you like the trading system that the imperial power left you with?
raise or lower               ?
wages and prices
do you let the              set the price for e.g. bread and gasoline?
justice
guarantees                  rights
will it be independent?
communist model
the                      controls all of these issues
democratic socialism model
e.g. Nehru, Mexico
state would control quite a lot of these issues
land
key industries, e.g. oil
import-substitution industrialization (ISI)
e.g.             
increase barriers to trade to develop your own industries
low trade and increased local industry
                 local imports of foreign goods
export-oriented industrialization (EOI)
e.g.           , South Korea
barriers to imports might still be         
keep out foreign imports
high trade
               wages
depress currency
rich countries will think: that stuff they are making is so cheap, we want to buy it
problem: you are keeping the wealth of your own people is lower
their buying power is being reduced to keep your exports high
your companies are happy but your workers are not
this define politics in Japan and South Korea in the 1970s
liberal stance along the 19th century lines
keep government out
only regulate capitalist system as much as necessary
old-fashioned                    state
the choice of dictators who didn't want to fuss with all of these choices
like states that had been around for thousands of years
find out what in your country makes           , grab control of it, then squeeze out as much of it as you can for yourself
these pressures shaped Third World countries leaders
Ghana's Kwame               
oversaw liberation from Britain in Ghana
saw himself as African Lenin
              's Ho Chi-Minh
Vietnamese Communist revolutionary, president of North Vietnam 1945-1969
Egypt's             
Algeria's Ferhat            (1899-1985)
involved in revoluationary struggle of Algeria
Kenya's Tom           
spearheaded the negotiations for Kenya's independence from Britain
during this time was when Obama's father came to              on a scholarship sponsored by the United States
China's Mao Tse Tung
took land and food away from the rural peasants and redistributed it to the cities
this "Great Leap Forward" caused a famine as             's similar attempt in the 1930s
probably caused between 20 and 30 million lives
Indonesia's               
1946 menacing insurgent figure
1958 weary, battled president of a country suffering from civil war
India's           
split into India and Pakistan
Pakistan had divisions of its own
a part of Pakistan, East Bengal succeeded from Pakistan and became Bangladesh
pressured by China
Cuba's             
led 26th of July movement against                in 1959
then chose a communist model for his country
variety and similarities
even though these people indicate a wide variety of personalities, each of them had to deal with the          sorts of questions and issues in their countries
important to remember that super powers were using Third World countries for their purposes, just as Third World country leaders were using the superpowers for their purposes

Vocabulary:

collude, v. act together secretly to achieve a fraudulent, illegal, or deceitful purpose  "What happens then is that the British and French secretly collude with the Israelis so that all three countries launch a joint military occupation which will seize the Suez Canal while the Israelis will attack Egypt in Sinai."

People:

Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969)
Vietnamese Communist revolutionary, president of North Vietnam 1945-1969
  • died of old age in the middle of the Vietnam War (1955-1975)
Kwame Nkrumah (1909-1972)
Leader of Ghana 1951-1966 nation's independence from British colonization in 1957
  • winner of the Lenin Peace Prize in 1963
  • saw himself as an African Lenin
Che Guevara (1928-1967)
Argentine Marxist revolutionary against capitalist exploitation of Latin America
  • traveled throughout South America, saw poverty, involved in Guatemala's social reforms, joined Fidel Castro
  • played a pivotal role in the victorious two-year guerrilla campaign that deposed the Batista regime
  • supported international revolution
  • captured and killed by CIA-supported Bolivian troops in Bolivia
Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-1957)
Second president of Egypt after planning 1952 overthrow of monarchy, cracked down on Muslim Brotherhood and ousted president
  • neutralist policies during the Cold War led to tense relations with Western powers
  • retaliatory move to nationalize the Suez Canal Company in 1956 was acclaimed within Egypt and the Arab world
1914: Schizophrenic Germany
1914: The Balkan Whirlpool
1914: From Balkan Crisis to War
1914-1916: All War Plans Fail Horribly
The 1916 Missed Opportunity for Peace
WWI Pushes Warring Countries Toward Total States
Why the Allies Won World War One
Post-WWI: Filling the Void of Collapsed Empires
Post-WWI Communism vs. Anti-Communism
Post World War I: The Age of Uncertainty
1910s/1920s: Modern Women
The World of 1930
The 1930s World Crisis
1930s: The Decade of Contingency
America's Entry into World War II
WWII: Strategies for Total War
1945: Hour Zero
Post WWII: Imagining New Countries
Conflicts in Postwar Nation Building
The Two Europes That Emerged After WWII
1947 China: Undesirable Communists vs. Flawed Nationalists
Post WWII: The Age of America
Reasons for the Korean War
How WWIII was Avoided in the Korean War
1950-1952: The Cold War Comes to Main Street
1950-1954: The H-Bomb and the Nuclear Revolution
1950s: Loosening Empires and Building Confederations
The Emergence of the Third World
1958-1962: The World at the Brink
Third World Proxy Wars of the 1950s and 1960s
Managerial States and the Transnational Disruption of 1968
1970s Obstacles to Reducing Cold War Tensions
1970s Democratic Socialism Becomes a Non-Choice
1980s Political Polarization
1980s: Global Capitalism Transformed