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Notes on video lecture:
Third World Proxy Wars of the 1950s and 1960s
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
oil, Jordan, Southeast, aerial, Vietcong, ground, Mann, Russell, Sukarno, telegram, 1960s, two, imploding, aging, Egypt, communist, Biafra, pressured, Shah, Israelis, dissidents, bombing, China, Duan, Indonesia, wonders, Arab, Belaúnde, overthrown, Vietnamese, Congo, French, attack, proxies, local, Silva, Diem, Chinese, Catholic, Hanoi, divides, Cambodia, symbol, Syria
four regions of the world into the           
Southeast Asia
communism vs. non-communism is an issue all over                    Asia
Communist North Vietnam is trying to help South Vietnamese                      overthrow the South Vietnamese government
Malaysia and                    also have communist parties
connected to                who have migrated there
Middle East
the superpowers are adopting               
internationalized            struggles
new nationalist governments in            and Egypt are getting military equipment from the Soviet Union, as well as Soviet advisers
the United States is finding its anti-communist allies among the tradition          monarchies
Saudi Arabia
private companies helping them develop their        resources
center of attention
feeling pressed by Syria, Egypt,             
1967:                  preemptively attack forces gathering to attack them
West Bank of Jordan river
Golan Heights
Sinai Peninsula
later given back to            in a peace treaty negotiated in the late 1970s
ruled by the         
took power in coup sponsored by the United States and British in 1953
allied with the United States
Latin America
communism, anti-communism, proxy fights
Thomas         , secretary of state, became expert on Latin America and supported regime change under Lyndon B. Johnson's administration
United States was looking for that centrist Latin American leader who could find the right path of non-                   development
Peru's President Fernando                               
a Latin American "architect of hope"
Brazil's President Costa E           
his government started the most oppressive stage of the military regime against communists, which would be continued and expanded under his successor, General Emílio Garrastazu Médici
Republic of           
early 1960s
United States and Soviet Union both took an interest in the Republic of the Congo
1970s more proxy battles between communists and non-communists
1960s many of the struggles were still about nation building
one of the most populous states in Africa
1967-1970              breakaway republic
the Vietnam War
the great Third World struggle of the 1960s and early 1970s
the issue
starts in 1950s after              are pushed out
supposed to be an election defining a single                      government
elections are never held
Vietnam instead becomes        states
North Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh aided by Le         
throughout 1960s Ho Chi Minh becomes the            symbol of the leadership
many of the real strings of power being pulled by Le Duan
by 1959, the North decide to make an all out effort to                      the South
first just military supplies to                  guerrillas
eventually troops, along Ho Chi Minh Trail
through neutral and weakly-ruled Laos, also used Cambodia
South Vietnam
capital: Saigon (today: Ho Chi Minh City)
ruler: Ngo Dinh         
charismatic                  Nationalist
responses to North Vietnam's Ho Chi Minh Trail
USA gives military supplies to South Vietnam
           gives military supplies to North Vietnam
USA pins hopes on Diem
Diem becomes increasingly controversial
high-handed style
Diem is faltering
1963: Kennedy's Dictaphone thoughts about coup against and killing of Diem
felt responsible for the coup after having sent                 , apparently supporting it
shocked by death of Diem
he was an extraordinary character
end of May 1964, conversation between Johnson and Richard               
Russell was known for a tough, anti-communist conservative
               what U.S. is doing in Vietnam
"I'd get some crowd that got rid of old Diem to get rid of these people and get some fella in there that said he wished to hell we would get out, that would give us good excuse for getting out"
feels trapped, unable to solve his dilemma
gets reelected
is increasingly                    to do something about communism in Vietnam
1968: 500,000 American combat troops are deployed
100s of soldiers are dying each week
American                North Vietnam
more bombs being dropped on Indochina than dropped in all of WWII in Germany, but its not enough
America considers              invasion into North Vietnam
didn't do it because the Chinese are involved
Chinese have warned Americans, an invasion into North Vietnam is an              on China
remembering the North Korean president, Americans stay back
fight the war on North Vietnamese and Chinese terms, i.e. ground war only in South Vietnam
although there was              bombing of Hanoi in the North
the historical significance of the war
for America
               the country
makes America question itself and its ideals
for Southeast Asia
damage done, Laos and                  got swept up in the war
creates polarized communist/anticommunist conflict throughout the area
September 1965,                overthrown in Indonesia
the "30 September group" feared that the Chinese communists were going to launch a coup of their own
overthrow Sukarno and purge communist party in Indonesia
lead massacres that cause the deaths of 100,000s of Indonesians, a purge to cement a new military-sponsored right-wing dictatorship in Indonesia
China is                    in its own cultural revolution
for the world
Vietnam War becomes a              of the limits anti-communist containment
London protests to stop supporting the U.S. war
protests in Paris, Berlin, Rome


######################### (1933-2011)
Nigerian military officer and politician, the leader of the breakaway Republic of Biafra from 1967 to 1970
  • Nigerian politician from 1983 to 2011
  • served as the military governor of the Eastern Region of Nigeria in 1966
  • educated in England
  • attractive to the west
######################### (1901-1963)
First president of South Vietnam (1955–1963)
  • accruing considerable US support due to his staunch anti-communism
  • in 1955 won 600,000 votes from an electorate of 450,000
  • a Roman Catholic, Diem's policies toward the Republic's Montagnard natives and its Buddhist majority were met with protests
  • lost the backing of his US patrons and was assassinated in a coup d'état

Spelling Corrections:

1914: Schizophrenic Germany
1914: The Balkan Whirlpool
1914: From Balkan Crisis to War
1914-1916: All War Plans Fail Horribly
The 1916 Missed Opportunity for Peace
WWI Pushes Warring Countries Toward Total States
Why the Allies Won World War One
Post-WWI: Filling the Void of Collapsed Empires
Post-WWI Communism vs. Anti-Communism
Post World War I: The Age of Uncertainty
1910s/1920s: Modern Women
The World of 1930
The 1930s World Crisis
1930s: The Decade of Contingency
America's Entry into World War II
WWII: Strategies for Total War
1945: Hour Zero
Post WWII: Imagining New Countries
Conflicts in Postwar Nation Building
The Two Europes That Emerged After WWII
1947 China: Undesirable Communists vs. Flawed Nationalists
Post WWII: The Age of America
Reasons for the Korean War
How WWIII was Avoided in the Korean War
1950-1952: The Cold War Comes to Main Street
1950-1954: The H-Bomb and the Nuclear Revolution
1950s: Loosening Empires and Building Confederations
The Emergence of the Third World
1958-1962: The World at the Brink
Third World Proxy Wars of the 1950s and 1960s
Managerial States and the Transnational Disruption of 1968
1970s Obstacles to Reducing Cold War Tensions
1970s Democratic Socialism Becomes a Non-Choice
1980s Political Polarization
1980s: Global Capitalism Transformed