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Notes on video lecture:
1980s Political Polarization
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Italy, reboot, Tendenzwende, economy, banks, Genscher, malaise, order, Britain, polarized, socialist, Friedman, intentions, defensive, German, Andropov, Afghanistan, 1983, communist, Poland, Europe, domestic, ballot, Reagan, Mitterand, Schmidt, demonstrations, terrorist, symbol, European, liberal, Cuban, bully, Serfdom, Thatcher
1970s: looking for new ideas to get out of the economic               
economic liberalism
instead of larger government control of the               , retreat from a government role in the economy
Milton                 , 1975 interview
he calls himself a                as in freedom instead of a conservative as in conserving the current economic practices
says its a mistake to judge policies and programs by their                      rather than their results
says programs that are labeled for the poor and needy almost always have the opposite effects of those for which they were intended
he borrows from earlier economists
Friedrich Hayek, Austrian economist from 1940s, book "Road to               "
issue of human rights
taken up on left and right wings of American and                  politics
John Paul II (pope from 1978-2005)
represented the aspirations of liberty for people in             
provided a symbol of the aspirations of liberty around the world
being held back by Soviet Union
yearning for public           
reaction to the violence and the                    movements of the 1970s
America chased out of Vietnam, now on the                   
in the shadow of the USSR, looking now like the world's           
political turns in the 1970s
           and Spain
communists come close to gaining power but are turned back at the              box
                 comes to power
             comes to power
                   comes to power
looks as if France is going to become more deeply                   
1981 forms a ruling coalition and partnership with the                    party
1982 he then decides to align to              partners, even with the British
firmly anti-communist in political issues
recoils from communism in economic issues
does not nationalize the big           
he decides France just can't afford the long-term costs of socialism
but needs to join a European consensus that will              capitalism
Mitterand's conversion in 1982 becomes a big part of an emerging trend
West Germany
no country was more important in determining the future of Europe than West Germany
Helmut               's SPD
very pro-NATO and anti-Soviet
strong on defense issues
had to govern along with Germany's liberal party, the Free Democrat party
led by Hans-Dietrich                 
crisis over missles
the Soviet Union deployed in the 1970s a new set of missiles which could target sites all through             
Western leaders saw this as a way to disable their response strategy to agression where the West could be the first to use nuclear weapons
therefore Europeans felt they needed missiles from the US which could strike the Soviet Union
West European leaders like Helmut Schmidt are asking the United States to deploy missiles in their countries
1979: NATO begins deployment of missles to be ended by         
became an enormous              of the Cold War confrontation
SPD party led by Schmidt moves leftward
does not want to go along with the missile deployment
things it will make Europe a nuclear battlefield
they want agreements against arms
1980s politics becoming                   
pro or against NATO
end of social-liberal coalition
                             of hundreds of thousands of people in West Germany
1982 Kohl and the                         
seizing on the ideological differences between East and West
explicitly aligning with NATO
the East/West choice is also felt in               , France, Italy, the United States
1981-1983 intense years of international crisis
Poland had to declar Martial Law
Soviet War in                        grinds on
debt crisis in the Third World
1982 Argentina seizes Falklands
1983 Soviets walk out of talks over missile build up
The Third World War
television drama
The Day After
Red Dawn - Soviet invasion of the United Stets accompanied by            allies
War Games - war machines getting out of control
portray strength with an interest in peace
Thatcher, Kohl and Reagan get                  support
win reelections


avuncular, adj. regarded as characteristic of an uncle, especially in benevolence or tolerance  "That gentle, avuncular fellow Milton Friedman."


######################### (1912-2006)
American economist, statistician, and writer, the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century
  • taught at the University of Chicago for more than three decades
  • known for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy
######################### (1914-1984)
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1982-1984
  • 1954: played a key role in crushing the Hungarian Revolution
  • 1967: played key role in crushing of Prague Spring
  • 1979: played dominant role in the decision to invade Afghanistan
######################### (1918-)
West Germany chancellor from 1974-1982, member of the SPD party,
  • 1969-1972: Minister of Defense
  • 1972-1974: Minister of Finance
  • supported policies which gave led to Germany having one of the most stable currencies and economic positions in the world

Ideas and Concepts:

On the complete confusion of the terms liberal and conservative, via tonight's history class and a 1975 interview with Milton Friedman: "I never characterize myself as a conservative economist. As I understand the English language, conservative means conserving, keeping things as they are. I don't want to keep things as they are. The true conservatives today are the people who are in favor of ever bigger government, the people who call themselves liberals today, the New Dealers, they are the true conservatives, because they want to keep going on the same path we're going on. I would like to dismantle that. I call myself a liberal in the true sense of liberal in the sense that it means of and pertaining to freedom."
1914: Schizophrenic Germany
1914: The Balkan Whirlpool
1914: From Balkan Crisis to War
1914-1916: All War Plans Fail Horribly
The 1916 Missed Opportunity for Peace
WWI Pushes Warring Countries Toward Total States
Why the Allies Won World War One
Post-WWI: Filling the Void of Collapsed Empires
Post-WWI Communism vs. Anti-Communism
Post World War I: The Age of Uncertainty
1910s/1920s: Modern Women
The World of 1930
The 1930s World Crisis
1930s: The Decade of Contingency
America's Entry into World War II
WWII: Strategies for Total War
1945: Hour Zero
Post WWII: Imagining New Countries
Conflicts in Postwar Nation Building
The Two Europes That Emerged After WWII
1947 China: Undesirable Communists vs. Flawed Nationalists
Post WWII: The Age of America
Reasons for the Korean War
How WWIII was Avoided in the Korean War
1950-1952: The Cold War Comes to Main Street
1950-1954: The H-Bomb and the Nuclear Revolution
1950s: Loosening Empires and Building Confederations
The Emergence of the Third World
1958-1962: The World at the Brink
Third World Proxy Wars of the 1950s and 1960s
Managerial States and the Transnational Disruption of 1968
1970s Obstacles to Reducing Cold War Tensions
1970s Democratic Socialism Becomes a Non-Choice
1980s Political Polarization
1980s: Global Capitalism Transformed