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Notes on video lecture:
1950s: Loosening Empires and Building Confederations
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
kinships, Suez, German, president, Stalin, partnership, nuclear, confederation, recedes, 1947, Mosaddegh, NATO, outsiders, oil, Africa, good, Farouk, Queen, Indonesia, armistice, Arab, Shigeru, Khrushchev, crude, METO, chaos, squelched, Empire, cooperation, British, crisis, organized, French, Turkey, Communist, exiled, Russians, purges, real, competitors
the ways in which governments                    themselves began changing significantly in the 1950s
in the mid-1950s, apart from India and                   , the main empires are mainly still there
British Commonwealth
independent states that still regard the            as their sovereign
dedicated to their common heritage
French colonial empire
still had Indochina
still controlled many parts of             
the empires, however, are changing
19th century Imperial partnerships
colonial rules and colonial elites
1950s, the elites are rising, e.g. the British influence                but is still present and even dominant, important groups are still deeply involved
oil companies
political advisers
as decolonization unfolds, you change from one kind of                        to another one
a new association: the anti-                   confederation, led by the USA
the reason why we don't use the term "American             " because "empire" has a very specific meaning
countries that are part of          are not part of an American empire since they remain independent countries
they are, however, part of an anti-communist                           
confederation, n. a body of states united for certain common purposes, sovereign states united for common action in relation to externals
Americans are interested and active in the domestic politics of the countries in the confederacy and visa versa
             politicians lobbying members of congress
American politicians forming                  with this or that German political party
in some cases the                    has better relations with leaders of other countries than with leaders of specific States
blended identity
our interests and their interests are different yet blended
the Rio Pact
agreement signed on         
an attack against one is to be considered an attack against them all
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
much interaction between politicians, military commanders
Baghdad Pact or          (Middle East Treaty Organization)
included Iran, Iraq, Pakistan,             , and the United Kingdom
committed the nations to mutual cooperation and protection, as well as non-intervention in each other's affairs, its goal was to contain the Soviet Union by having a line of strong states along the USSR's southwestern frontier
began disintegrating by end of 1950s, dissolved in 1979, partly due to resentment toward the British
South-East Asia treaty organization
1952 Revolution
initially aimed at overthrowing King             
then to establish a republic, end the                occupation of the country, and secure the independence of Sudan, hitherto governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium
British view on revolution
threat to empire, threat to canal
American view on revolution
support          nationalism because it could be anti-communist
so while the Americans are trying to be friends with Nasser, the British are trying to depose him
trying to regain full independence
1940s trying to push out                 
British had left but retain a controlling interest in Iran's        supply
Iran tries to take over oil
American's don't agree with British on oil and want to support Mosaddegh
understood these complications, he "oiled the wheels of           "
wanted to reduce foreign influence
not a brutal, military autocrat
a liberal politician of an earlier era
Americans worry that he will become a pawn of Communists
Americans and British overthrow                    and put back in the old ruling family in the person of the Shah of Iran living in exile in Rome
Iran then became a member of the anti-Communist confederation for awhile
Egypt was trying to regain control of the          canal and Iran was trying to regain control of their oil
Europe and Japan
reborn in post-war years
1950s-60s looked back on with nostalgia
part of what is creating this boom is an alphabet soup of organizations
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
lowered trade barriers
Economic Cooperation Administration
organization that distributed the aid that required the European countries to work together
European Payments Union
coordinating financial system
a system for martial aid
western Europe is becoming an economic entity
European Coal and Steel Community
coal and steel were seen as a sign of national power
"SCAPanese" model
Supreme Command of the Allied Powers
the allied occupation authority in occupied Japan
Japanese foreign minister Yoshida               
Japan's increasing economic with offshore Asia
with United States as a critical market for exports
Japan passed over Russia's GDP and approached high income status
South Korea
takes longer to recover, was very war ravaged from Korean War
much foreign aid from the United States
1953              died
North Koreans and Chinese backers decided to sign an                    agreement, not a peace treaty, but a suspension of hostilities
created a demilitarized zone
growth of consensus politics
big government
big unions
a sense that we can't and won't go back to the politics of the extremes
even unsatisfactory compromises seemed more appealing than the alternatives
1954 war between the              and the Viet Minh
conference in Geneva
French would leave and Vietnam would hold elections
French left but Vietnam never held elections
instead, two states are created
The New Communists
in Western Europe Communism was still a powerful movement
long-time followers
became a community of                    in their countries
Tito in Yugoslavia
authoritarian state capitalism
there was a danger that Stalin would invade Yugoslavia or try to get Tito out of the way
but Stalin dies and Tito survives
Yugoslavia was a mix between communism and democratic socialism
Soviet Union
great land development projects
sharing of technical expertise with China
warm period in 1950s in China
old Communists wondered if                      and the new communists were still committed to the global cause of communism and the overthrown of capitalist, reactionaries and imperialists
a blend of contradictions
impulsive, earthy,            at times, from humble beginnings
no experience of world travel
much experience in upper levels of Communist party
survived the             
high hopes for Soviet Union in economic progress
contrasted with Mao Zedong
Mao says Soviets need to share their                bomb
Khrushchev uneasy about this
1956:              year
20th CPSU: Communist Party of the Soviet Union
The Secret Speech
long speech recounting the crimes of Stalin
Mao's reaction to this speech: gave speech of his own: Stalin was 70%          and 30% bad
Mao decides to embark on own path, China can move forward in          communism
in Hungary and Poland communists try to embark on their own paths, but are                   
1957: Khrushchev moves against his own dissenters, but they are             , not shot
1956/1957 change in world communism
challenged from within
but Khrushchev and Mao became                        in extremist communism and a turning point in world communism was lost


######################### (1882-1967)
Prime Minister of Iran from 1951 until 1953 overthrown by British/Americans
  • pro nationalization of the Iranian oil industry (under British control since 1913)
######################### (1892-1980)
Authoritarian, "benevolent dictator" of Yugoslavia
  • 1943-1980 Supreme commander of Yugoslav army
  • during World War II he was the leader of the Partisans, often regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe

Spelling Corrections:

1914: Schizophrenic Germany
1914: The Balkan Whirlpool
1914: From Balkan Crisis to War
1914-1916: All War Plans Fail Horribly
The 1916 Missed Opportunity for Peace
WWI Pushes Warring Countries Toward Total States
Why the Allies Won World War One
Post-WWI: Filling the Void of Collapsed Empires
Post-WWI Communism vs. Anti-Communism
Post World War I: The Age of Uncertainty
1910s/1920s: Modern Women
The World of 1930
The 1930s World Crisis
1930s: The Decade of Contingency
America's Entry into World War II
WWII: Strategies for Total War
1945: Hour Zero
Post WWII: Imagining New Countries
Conflicts in Postwar Nation Building
The Two Europes That Emerged After WWII
1947 China: Undesirable Communists vs. Flawed Nationalists
Post WWII: The Age of America
Reasons for the Korean War
How WWIII was Avoided in the Korean War
1950-1952: The Cold War Comes to Main Street
1950-1954: The H-Bomb and the Nuclear Revolution
1950s: Loosening Empires and Building Confederations
The Emergence of the Third World
1958-1962: The World at the Brink
Third World Proxy Wars of the 1950s and 1960s
Managerial States and the Transnational Disruption of 1968
1970s Obstacles to Reducing Cold War Tensions
1970s Democratic Socialism Becomes a Non-Choice
1980s Political Polarization
1980s: Global Capitalism Transformed