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Notes on video lecture:
Managerial States and the Transnational Disruption of 1968
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Yates, malfunctions, fear, escalate, ordinary, dangerous, private, inside, intellectuals, institutions, Defense, May, Shaoqi, coincidences, bloc, government, plodding, recalcitrant, equivalent, Europe, brink, Cambodia, other, insanity, Fail, catalytic, not, young, traitor, Czech, hierarchy, suburbia, McElroy, North, imminent, extensiveness, polarized, Politburo, vocabulary, students, transnational, 1964, civil, zeal, decay, volcano, next, disruption
middle of 1960s Cold War begins to           
settles into its second decade
relations become routine
both sides stepped back from the            of the Cuban Missile Crisis
both sides seem to want to make the conflict just a part of                  life
popular culture reactions
1964:          Safe
about a nuclear crisis where the Soviets are not the villains and the United States is not the hero or the villain
both superpowers find themselves trapped by the                          of their own technology
1964: Seven Days in       
plot to take over American government in order to keep the president from signing an arms control treaty with the Soviets
1965: Dr. Strangelove
the nuclear build up is seen as a form of collective                  fit only for the subject of satire and the darkest of dark humor
Soviets have given up their effort to change the status quo in             
National security states
large, Cold War bureaucracies
hierarchies are in charge of most important areas
managerial states
United States
president of Procter & Gamble
1957-1959: Secretary of               
Robert McNamara
president of Ford Motor Company
1961-1968: Secretary of Defense
Communist countries
the gray, almost faceless members of the Soviet                   
each person providing guidance to various government ministries
the government of one communist country looked like the         
managerial state is being challenged
Mao Zedong's revolutionary Great Leap Forward
not only leading a war against the                          countryside, but against his own powerful ministries who are sapping the          out of the revolution
China is actually being managed by people like Liu             
very planned economy
liberation from stifling                   
1962 book: Catch-22, Joseph Heller
a novel based on his WWII experience in Italy, B-25 bomber squadron
the enemy never appears
the enemy turns out to be the managerial state itself, the military bureaucracy, insane,                 , throwing bomber crews into more meaningless missions in which they might get killed
1962 book: Revolutionary Road, Richard           
the young husband and wife, full of dreams
find themselves settling down in                 
meaning seems to be draining out of their lives
the societal structures suffocate them and lead to personal crises
rights revolution
started in 1960s and expanded into the 70s
was domestic and international at the same time
the United States plays a                    role
because of the civil rights turmoil
there was a big push to get civil rights for African American, in 1950s coming to a climax in the 1960s
government may not dicriminate based on race
e.g. segregation of public schools or bus system
this is a law which refers to the government
however, the Civil Rights Act of          stated that even                firms and individuals cannot discriminate based on race or sex
this was an enormous extension of the scope of these changes
set precedents which spread around the world beginning in Europe, e.g. in Britain in the 1970s
so part of the rights revolution is how people in the United States and in other countries began to see the                            of these laws, and the power of these precedents
this is a challenge to the big, managerial state
more formal calls for freedom
from not only racial groups but            kinds of groups
not only against governments and big business but against big unions
groups against those being favored who are already on the             
1968: the famous year of                     
           people are trying to through out Soviet dominated communist rule but Soviets crush this revolution and reinstate the rule of orthodox communists
rebellion against the structures of the structures of President de Gaulle's government (President 1959-1969)
against the big                          of French life
anti-Vietnam protests
rebellion against democratic socialism decaying into a government of cronies helping each other out
Mao leading revolution against government institutions
encourage his guards to attack the aging                            who are now obstructing the revolution
leading common causes of the Great Disruption
balancing local vs. transnational
to what extent are all of the protests in 1968 a series of                          and to what extent are they connected as an international movement
what portion are local and what portion are common and                           
what is the connection between various countries
hypothesis #1: China is different
since you have there Mao leading a revolution against his own                     
hypothesis #2: living on a quiet               
millions of people been living under the shadow of                  world war for decades
created society-wide, existential unease
as it becomes more routine, there is a reaction against this kind of world of permanent conflict
hypothesis #3: students
in many of the affected countries,                  are key actors
there is an infrastructure of new universities, many just a generation old
they are being empowered with a                      of mobilization
opportunities to mobilize in the university's structures environment
its hard for many of these countries to attack their            people
hypothesis #4: American turmoil with Vietnam as a catalyst
Vietnam War is a catalyst which sets off broader challenges to the managerial state
people around the world are noticing and inspired by what is happening in the United States
one of the most interesting aspects of the Great Disruption of 1968 is that the protesters did        overturn society
much of society reacts with          to the breakdown of public order
societies become more                    as the forces of order strike back
China's "secret years of terror" begins to get out of hand
Liu Shaoqi expelled from the Party as a renegade and               , then dies of injuries from abuse he received
United States
1968 the Johnson administration decides it can't                  the war
when Johnson leaves office, he is replaced not by anti-war dissidents
replaced by Richard Nixon, he has two options
option #1: escalate the war by attacking the            in a ground war
option #2: slowly Vietnamize the war by getting the American troops out and letting Vietnam fight its own            war
takes a middle road
launches campaign into                 
hoping North Vietnam will quit
Leonid Brezhnev (General Secretary from 1964-1982)
increase military power
feel they are                      to United States in military power
wants to maintain superpower status
break-away republics will be forced back in to the communist         
Mao increasingly worried about the Soviet Union as being a more                    enemy than the United States
Mao therefore warms up to the United States
this is over portrayed as "Nixon's opening to China" but the real variable which created that opening came from the Chinese side


######################### (1898-1969)
President of the People's Republic of China from 1959 to 1968, during which he implemented policies of economic reconstruction in China
  • fell out of favor in the 1960s because Mao viewed him as a threat to his power
  • 1968 disappeared from public life and was labelled China's premier 'Capitalist-roader' and a traitor
  • died under harsh treatment in late 1969
1914: Schizophrenic Germany
1914: The Balkan Whirlpool
1914: From Balkan Crisis to War
1914-1916: All War Plans Fail Horribly
The 1916 Missed Opportunity for Peace
WWI Pushes Warring Countries Toward Total States
Why the Allies Won World War One
Post-WWI: Filling the Void of Collapsed Empires
Post-WWI Communism vs. Anti-Communism
Post World War I: The Age of Uncertainty
1910s/1920s: Modern Women
The World of 1930
The 1930s World Crisis
1930s: The Decade of Contingency
America's Entry into World War II
WWII: Strategies for Total War
1945: Hour Zero
Post WWII: Imagining New Countries
Conflicts in Postwar Nation Building
The Two Europes That Emerged After WWII
1947 China: Undesirable Communists vs. Flawed Nationalists
Post WWII: The Age of America
Reasons for the Korean War
How WWIII was Avoided in the Korean War
1950-1952: The Cold War Comes to Main Street
1950-1954: The H-Bomb and the Nuclear Revolution
1950s: Loosening Empires and Building Confederations
The Emergence of the Third World
1958-1962: The World at the Brink
Third World Proxy Wars of the 1950s and 1960s
Managerial States and the Transnational Disruption of 1968
1970s Obstacles to Reducing Cold War Tensions
1970s Democratic Socialism Becomes a Non-Choice
1980s Political Polarization
1980s: Global Capitalism Transformed