More notes at http://tanguay.info/learntracker
C O U R S E 
The Modern World: Global History since 1760
Prof. Philip Zelikow, University of Virginia
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
1980s Political Polarization
Notes taken on September 12, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
1970s: looking for new ideas to get out of the economic malaise
economic liberalism
instead of larger government control of the economy, retreat from a government role in the economy
Milton Friedman, 1975 interview
he calls himself a liberal as in freedom instead of a conservative as in conserving the current economic practices
says its a mistake to judge policies and programs by their intentions rather than their results
says programs that are labeled for the poor and needy almost always have the opposite effects of those for which they were intended
he borrows from earlier economists
Friedrich Hayek, Austrian economist from 1940s, book "Road to Serfdom"
issue of human rights
taken up on left and right wings of American and European politics
John Paul II (pope from 1978-2005)
represented the aspirations of liberty for people in Poland
provided a symbol of the aspirations of liberty around the world
being held back by Soviet Union
yearning for public order
reaction to the violence and the terrorist movements of the 1970s
America chased out of Vietnam, now on the defensive
in the shadow of the USSR, looking now like the world's bully
political turns in the 1970s
Italy and Spain
communists come close to gaining power but are turned back at the ballot box
Thatcher comes to power
Reagan comes to power
Mitterand comes to power
looks as if France is going to become more deeply socialist
1981 forms a ruling coalition and partnership with the communist party
1982 he then decides to align to German partners, even with the British
firmly anti-communist in political issues
recoils from communism in economic issues
does not nationalize the big banks
he decides France just can't afford the long-term costs of socialism
but needs to join a European consensus that will reboot capitalism
Mitterand's conversion in 1982 becomes a big part of an emerging trend
West Germany
no country was more important in determining the future of Europe than West Germany
Helmut Schmidt's SPD
very pro-NATO and anti-Soviet
strong on defense issues
had to govern along with Germany's liberal party, the Free Democrat party
led by Hans-Dietrich Genscher
crisis over missles
the Soviet Union deployed in the 1970s a new set of missiles which could target sites all through Europe
Western leaders saw this as a way to disable their response strategy to agression where the West could be the first to use nuclear weapons
therefore Europeans felt they needed missiles from the US which could strike the Soviet Union
West European leaders like Helmut Schmidt are asking the United States to deploy missiles in their countries
1979: NATO begins deployment of missles to be ended by 1983
became an enormous symbol of the Cold War confrontation
SPD party led by Schmidt moves leftward
does not want to go along with the missile deployment
things it will make Europe a nuclear battlefield
they want agreements against arms
1980s politics becoming polarized
pro or against NATO
end of social-liberal coalition
demonstrations of hundreds of thousands of people in West Germany
1982 Kohl and the Tendenzwende
seizing on the ideological differences between East and West
explicitly aligning with NATO
the East/West choice is also felt in Britain, France, Italy, the United States
1981-1983 intense years of international crisis
Poland had to declar Martial Law
Soviet War in Afghanistan grinds on
debt crisis in the Third World
1982 Argentina seizes Falklands
1983 Soviets walk out of talks over missile build up
The Third World War
television drama
The Day After
Red Dawn - Soviet invasion of the United Stets accompanied by Cuban allies
War Games - war machines getting out of control
portray strength with an interest in peace
vs. Andropov
Thatcher, Kohl and Reagan get domestic support
win reelections