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Notes on video lecture:
European Empires, Science, and Capitalism
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
decipher, ironic, botanists, Demotic, Muslims, Mohenjo, Napoleon, conquer, butterflies, debt, alliance, Romans, Indus, Mamluks, ideologically, protection, Arabs, Bengal, Famine, progress, scientists, British, Turks, geographical
what united science and European imperialism was the urge to discover and               
at first the empires supported science mainly in terms of                          explorations
however, soon followed medicine, botany, history, linguistics studies
even studies that seemed useless were supported by the European empires because you could never really know what might be useful
19th century,                    who studied the folk medicines and witch doctors of South American tribes, discovered a treatment for malaria from the tree of Cinchona, which was later used in treating malaria when exploring Africa
British in India
first lets look what the                did when they conquered India
they were not particularly interested in archeology or history
when the British came, they
archeologists to study Indian history anthropologists, zoologists
rare Indian spiders and                       
studied languages of India
discovering of the            valley civilization
destroyed around 2000 BC
no Indian knew anything about it until the British came
1922 discovered               -daro
deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphics
the last person who could read hieroglyphic text probably died in the first millennium AD, in the Roman Empire when Egypt was ruled by the             
when the            conquered Egypt in the 7th century, they made no attempt to decipher hieroglyphics
when the                conquered Egypt in the 13th century, they also made no attempt to decipher hieroglyphics
when the            conquered Egypt in the 16th century, they also made to serious attempt to decipher hieroglyphics
in 1791,                  invaded Egypt, when his soldiers were busy building a fort at a place called Rosetta, they were digging to make a fort, they discovered a stone with three texts on it: one in Greek, one in               , and one in Hieroglyphics
as was usual, Napoleon's army was accompanied by scientists, 160 experts from different disciplines to study Egypt, and when this stone was discovered, it was quickly brought to the attention of these                     , who realized this might be the key to deciphering the lost writing of ancient Egypt
two years later in 1801, the French army was defeated by the               , and as part of the surrender terms, the French had to give up the Rosetta stone to the British
British allowed scholars from all over Europe to try to                  the text on this stone
after 20 years, by              justice, a French scholar Jean-Francois Champollion in 1822
enabled archeologists to read other texts and begin exploring the ancient world of Egypt in detail
science owes a large          to the contribution of European empires
European empires didn't support everything, they supported mostly those projects which they thought could be of use to them
not only practically but                           
history, archeology, biology
scientists gave their support to the empires because
they supported scientific research
they were seen as engines of                 
they would bring science and reason to other parts of the world
European imperialism is complicated: it clearly brought both war, famine, racism, slavery, and exploitation, as well as medicines, roads, schools, freedom, liberty, and in general a higher standard of living
1764 British conquered             
richest province of India
new British rulers were interested in making themselves rich
their economic policy in part caused the Great Bengal              between 1769 and 1773
10 million people died
the issue of European imperialism is complicated
very powerful
controlled very large areas of the world
did so many things that they provide plenty of evidence for any argument one wants to make about them
due to the                  with science, the European empires wielded so much power and their activity in so many areas of the world led to so many changes, you can find plenty of evidence of European empires being both extraordinarily beneficial or destructive to the rest of the world, but what we know is that the European empires allied with science for the large part created the world as we know it today including the ideologies which we use in order to judge them
without the contribution of science, it is hard to believe that Europeans could have conquered the world, but the conquerors returned the favor by providing scientists with information and                     , by supporting all kinds of strange and fascinating projects and by spreading the scientific way of thinking all over the world
and without imperial support, it is doubtful that modern science could have progressed very far
and it was capitalism which provided the financial means for both doing science and building empires
without this financial support, Columbus could never have reach America, James Cook could never have reached Australia, and Neil Armstrong could never have reached the moon

Spelling Corrections:



first to translate Rosetta Stone
Jean-Francois Champollion

Ideas and Concepts:

On the 500-year synergy between European empires, science, and capitalism, via this morning's History of Humankind class: "The issue of European imperialism is complicated. Due to their alliance with science, European empires wielded so much power, and their activity in so many areas of the world led to so many changes, that today one can easily find evidence for arguments which state both that European empires were extraordinarily beneficial to certain areas of the world as well as for arguments which state that European empires were extraordinarily destructive to certain areas of the world. But what is certain is that over the last 500 years, European empires allied with science and capitalism created for better or worse the world as we know it today including the ideologies which we use in order to judge them. Without the contribution of science, it is doubtful that Europeans would have conquered as much of the world as they did, and without European empires, it is doubtful that modern science would have progressed as far as it has. And without capitalism providing the financial means for both science and empires to progress and expand, Columbus never would have reached America, James Cook never would have reached Australia, and Neil Armstrong never would have reached the moon."
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