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Notes on video lecture:
How Walking Upright Led to Better Social and Cooperative Skills
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
socialized, protect, top, bigger, muscular, Homo, hunters, hominids, death, preyed, 25%, 60kg, stress, food, leftovers, Neanderthal, hyenas, cognitive, prematurely, energy, 2.5, delicate, women, horse
the various species of human (those species which belonged to the genus         ) shared many characteristics with each other
had extraordinarily large brains
mammals weighting          usually have a brain 200cc (cubic centimeters)
homo sapiens today who weigh 60kg have a brain weighing 1200-1400cc
2.5 million years ago, the earliest men and women had smaller brains than we do today but compared to other animals it was still proportionally large and increased as humans evolved
when we think of reasons why humans ended up dominating the earth and the fact that their brain size is relatively larger than other animals, we tend to think that in terms of brain size,              is better, but if this were the case, evolutionary pressures would have also produced cats with big brains, dogs with big brains, and horses with big brains, but this did not happen. The fact is that a big brain, apart from its advantages, is also a big problem: you have to carry it around, and you have to                it so it is usually encased within a massive, heavy skull. What is even more difficult is to fuel the brain with             . In Homo sapiens, the brain accounts for 3% of body weight but consumes        of the body's energy at rest. In comparison, chimpanzee's brains require only 8% of their body's energy at rest.
Ancient humans paid for their larger and larger brains in two main ways: (1) they had to spend much more time than other animals looking for         , whereas a baboon with his smaller brain could sit around in the sun much of day, humans spent their day time largely looking for food to fulfill their brain's demanding energy budget, and (2) as their brains increased in size, humans became less                 , their muscles in general became smaller and weaker as energy was used less to power their biceps and leg muscles and more to power neurons. It is far from obvious that giving up muscle to have a bigger brain is a good strategy to have for surviving in the jungle or savanna. A large ape or chimpanzee could not win an argument with a human but could rip his body apart quite easily. So apart from their flint knifes and pointed sticks, humans had very little to show for their big brains. But according to the social brain hypothesis, when                  started living in large groups, selection favored greater intelligence. The ability to communicate symbolically helped humans be able to live in larger groups and protect themselves more efficiently."
walked upright on two legs
most other animals walk on all fours
advantages of standing up
see predators and food from further away
hands are free while you walk e.g to throw stones or sticks
as hands became free, humans developed finely tuned muscles to perform                  tasks with their hands to build tools
       million years ago, first sign that humans were making tools
disadvantages of walking upright
the skeleton of our primate ancestors evolved to support a create to walk on all fours and had a relatively small head and light brain
walking upright with a larger head and heavier brain created              on spine and skeleton
muscles and skeleton evolved to support it better but it was never perfect
people today suffer from backaches and stiff necks which results from moving to an upright position
           paid extra for walking upright on two legs
when you walk upright, your can move more efficiently the closer your hips are to one another, which put evolutionary pressure on human bodies which resulted in the birth canal in general becoming smaller, while at the same time babies heads had evolutionary pressure to become larger
the result was the human mothers and children began to die more often during child birth
           of the mother and child during childbirth became far more common among humans than among chimpanzees, baboons, zebras or elephants
women who tended to give birth later in their pregnancy cycle had a greater chance of dying during childbirth as did their children, and those women who tended to give birth earlier while their babies heads were relatively smaller and softer had a greater chance of surviving childbirth, as did their children, so over the eons humans began to give birth to babies earlier and earlier
this is why, compared to other animals, humans are born                       , when many of their vital systems, especially in their brain, are still not developed
compare this to a baby            who can begin trotting several hours after birth
kittens will begin looking for food for themselves when they are only a few weeks old
human babies, on the other hand, remain completely helpless for months and even years
because human children are born prematurely, unlike other animals, a single human mother could not give adequate care to her children during the long period of time the children are not yet developed enough to take care of themselves, which led to humans living in larger and larger groups and become more and more social
this led to the fact that humans can be                      and educated to a far greater extent than any other animal
whereas other animals are born with their brain functionality almost completely formed, humans have a long period of time after birth to develop their cognitive functions and hence their                    functions depend much more on their environment
we tend to assume that having a large brain, being able to produce and use tools, having complex social skills would make humans dominant, but the fact is that humans enjoyed these advantages for more than two million years yet remained weak and marginal without much impact on their environment. A million years ago, there were only about a million humans in the world and they were not on the top of the food chain, they were              upon and hunted by lions, bear, and alligators. They were not very good               , hardly able to hunt and kill big animals like giraffes and elephants, even in groups. Most humans subsisted by eating vegetables such as nuts, fruits and mushrooms, by hunting small animals like rabbits, frogs and turtles or eating the                    from the kills of other animals such as the leftovers of a giraffe killed by a lion.
one of the most common uses of early stone tools was not to hunt animals, but to crack open the bones of dead animals in order to get at the marrow.
every animal has a special niche
woodpeckers can peck inside wood and eat termites and other insects that live inside the niche
using stones to break open bones in order to eat the marrow was the original specialty of humans in the world
lions kill giraffe and eat most meat
             come and nibble the rest of the meat
then humans approach the carcass and find nothing left to eat, yet you use your stone tools to break open the bones and eat the marrow, since no other animal had the ability to get the marrow, this is your specialty characteristic of survival in the savanna
for 2 million years, humans were somewhere in the middle of the food chain, hunting small animals and eating only the marrow of larger animals
400,000 years ago several species of humans such as the                        would form groups to hunt larger animals
only in the 100,000 years did humans jump from the middle to the top of the food chain
humans were not used to being at the        of the food chain and were ill-adapted to this role, it evolutionary time it was a sudden change
The Context of History and Our Extended Human Family
How Walking Upright Led to Better Social and Cooperative Skills
The Importance of Fire and Cooking
Why Did Other Human Species Become Extinct?
The Cognitive Revolution and the Beginning of Human History
The Language of Homo Sapiens
How Fictive Language Enabled Larger Social Groups
The Power of Imagined Realities
How the Ability to Tell Stories Enabled Humans to Cooperate in Massive Groups
The Cognitive Revolution and the Variety of Human Communities
Spiritual Beliefs of Early Humans
Politics and Warfare of Pre-Agricultural Societies
45,000 Years Ago: Human's Decimation of Australia's Large Mammals
14,000 BC: Human Migration to the Americas
Agriculture: The Good and the Bad
10,000 BC: Agricultural Revolution
The Origins of Agriculture
The Code of Hammurabi and Other Imagined Realities
Inter-Subjective Reality and Romantic Consumerism
The Human Brain's Outsourcing of Mathematics
Unjust and Imagined Hierarchies
Imagined Hierarchies in History
Culturally Defined Gender
Three Theories of Gender Domination
The Direction of Humankind: Global Unity
The Essence of Money
The History of Money
The Historical Definition of Empire
The Relationship between Science, European Imperialism and Capitalism
Science, Capitalism and European Imperialism
Columbus: Last Man of the Middle Ages, Vespucci: First Man of the Modern Age
European Empires, Science, and Capitalism
How Capitalism is Based on Trust in the Future
On the Interdependence of Science and Capitalism
How Capitalism Enabled Small European Countries to Explore and Conquer the World
The Relationship Between Capitalism, the Slave Trade, and Free Market Forces
Industrialization, Energy and Raw Materials
The Second Agricultural Revolution and its Effect on Animal Treatment
The Ethics of Capitalism and Consumerism
On Limitless Energy Resources and the Hegemony of Modern Time Schedules
State/Market vs. Family/Community
Humankind's Rigid and Violent Past, and Flexible and Peaceful Present
Reasons for Our Current Unprecedented Era of International Peace
Three Theories on the History of Happiness
Psychological and Biological Happiness
Measuring Human Happiness
The Future of Cyborgs and Robots
What Do We Want to Want?