Lectures Watched
Since January 1, 2014
Hundreds of free, self-paced university courses available:
my recommendations here
Peruse my collection of 275
influential people of the past.
View My Class Notes via:
Receive My Class Notes via E-Mail:


Contact Me via E-Mail:
edward [at] tanguay.info
Notes on video lecture:
14,000 BC: Human Migration to the Americas
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
islands, disconnected, similar, lemurs, rodents, disasters, American, reindeer, Chile, 200, pampas, forests, influential, Siberia, genera, cusp, 100, jungles, game, ocean, genetic, swamps, victims
the first globally                        event that humans achieved was cause the ecological catastrophe in Australia 50,000 to 40,000 years ago
the second globally influential event was a similar ecological catastrophe on the                  continents
humans arrived about 14,000 BC
arrived on foot while sea levels were low enough that a land bridge connected north Eastern Siberia with northwestern Alaska
they were probably in pursuit of large          animals such as mammoths and                  which migrated back and forth along this land bridge
they then spread down into the continent of America
having been adjusted to living in the cold and long winters of               , within 2,000 years they adjusted to a variety of habitats and ecosystems:
thick                of Eastern United States
             of the Mississippi Delta
deserts of Mexico
steaming                of central America
open              of Argentina
by 10,000 BC, humans already inhabited the most southern point of           
no other animal had ever moved into such a variety of radically different habitats without undergoing any significant                mutation.
you can find some animals which live in various habitats like this, for instance ants, but evolution throughout the ages has given them specific features which help them to survive in each of these environments, for instance, ants in the delta of the Mississippi are structurally different than ants in the pampas of Argentina, it took millions of years for them to adapt to these different places. Sapiens adapted well in less than 2,000 years.
the human migration from Siberia to Chile left behind a long trail of               
American animals 60,000 years ago were much more varied than today
60,000 there were mammoths and mastodons (difference: mastodons had         -shaped teeth different from mammoth and elephant teeth)
               and beavers the size of bears
saber-tooth cats
giant sloths
within a few thousand years of humans arriving in North America, 34 of 47 genera of large mammals disappeared, South America lost 50 out of 60 genera large mammals, and we are talking about              not species, each genera contained many species and they all disappeared
many smaller species also died out
this was one of the biggest and swiftest ecological                    to ever befall the animal kingdom
the more                you were to Homo sapiens, the less chance you had of surviving
at the time of the cognitive revolution (70,000 year ago), earth was home to approximately        genera of large terrestrial mammals (weighing over 50 kilograms), by the time of the agricultural revolution (12,000 years ago), there were only        genera of large terrestrial mammals left, this means that Homo sapiens drove to extinction about half of the worlds large mammals long before we invented the wheel or writing, or iron tools.
after agricultural revolution
the extinctions did not stop after the agricultural revolutions, told by the archeological record of many               
there were no new continents to conquer, but there were islands, and archeological records show that almost every time humans arrived on an island, large animals on that island would go extinct
                         from Africa
for millions of years evolutionary processes produced a very unique collection of animals
largest bird, flightless, 3 meters tall
            , larger than gorillas
humans never really lived in harmony with nature
the large animals of the            suffered relatively little from the ancient extinctions
in an analogy of the Biblical flood, the real flood was not water but humans who migrated around the global and decimated many kinds of animals, the only animals it protected were the ones it domesticated for its purposes such as horse, cows, sheep, and pigs
The Context of History and Our Extended Human Family
How Walking Upright Led to Better Social and Cooperative Skills
The Importance of Fire and Cooking
Why Did Other Human Species Become Extinct?
The Cognitive Revolution and the Beginning of Human History
The Language of Homo Sapiens
How Fictive Language Enabled Larger Social Groups
The Power of Imagined Realities
How the Ability to Tell Stories Enabled Humans to Cooperate in Massive Groups
The Cognitive Revolution and the Variety of Human Communities
Spiritual Beliefs of Early Humans
Politics and Warfare of Pre-Agricultural Societies
45,000 Years Ago: Human's Decimation of Australia's Large Mammals
14,000 BC: Human Migration to the Americas
Agriculture: The Good and the Bad
10,000 BC: Agricultural Revolution
The Origins of Agriculture
The Code of Hammurabi and Other Imagined Realities
Inter-Subjective Reality and Romantic Consumerism
The Human Brain's Outsourcing of Mathematics
Unjust and Imagined Hierarchies
Imagined Hierarchies in History
Culturally Defined Gender
Three Theories of Gender Domination
The Direction of Humankind: Global Unity
The Essence of Money
The History of Money
The Historical Definition of Empire
The Relationship between Science, European Imperialism and Capitalism
Science, Capitalism and European Imperialism
Columbus: Last Man of the Middle Ages, Vespucci: First Man of the Modern Age
European Empires, Science, and Capitalism
How Capitalism is Based on Trust in the Future
On the Interdependence of Science and Capitalism
How Capitalism Enabled Small European Countries to Explore and Conquer the World
The Relationship Between Capitalism, the Slave Trade, and Free Market Forces
Industrialization, Energy and Raw Materials
The Second Agricultural Revolution and its Effect on Animal Treatment
The Ethics of Capitalism and Consumerism
On Limitless Energy Resources and the Hegemony of Modern Time Schedules
State/Market vs. Family/Community
Humankind's Rigid and Violent Past, and Flexible and Peaceful Present
Reasons for Our Current Unprecedented Era of International Peace
Three Theories on the History of Happiness
Psychological and Biological Happiness
Measuring Human Happiness
The Future of Cyborgs and Robots
What Do We Want to Want?