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Notes on video lecture:
How Capitalism is Based on Trust in the Future
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
two, Sumer, 60, growing, one, ten, capitalistic, imagination, trust, banker, king, growth, income, reserve, future, covered, hundreds, tomorrow, enterprises, dwindling, 250
economics is often seen as a notoriously complicated subject
understanding modern economic history and the rise of the                          system is quite easy
to understand it, you have to only understand a single word:             
the most unique and important characteristic of the modern capitalistic economy is that it is                constantly: every year we have more goods, more money
in 1500, the global production of goods and services is estimated to be equality to        billion dollars in today's dollars
annual per capita production: $550 per year
in 2013, this is approximately      trillion dollars
annual per capita production: $8800 per year
the way the economy grows
example
you want to open up a bakery but you don't have the money
you go to the bank and ask for a loan
the bank has money to give you because people put their earnings into the bank
e.g. a contractor just built an Italian restaurant and earned a million dollars and he puts this in the bank
you present your business plan to the             
if the banker is convinced, then she can take the one million dollars and give them to you
you hire the same contractor to build your bakery for one million dollars
he takes the money from you and deposits it in his bank account
the contractor now has        million dollars in his bank account
but in the bank, there is only one million dollars
but let's say the contract had come to you while building your bakery and said there were problems and now the cost is not one million dollars but two million dollars
so you go to the bank, get another million from the bank and pay it to the contractor who puts it in the bank
so the contractor has three million dollars in his account but there is only        million in the bank
banks are allowed to loan        dollars for every dollar that they actually possess
this is called the "               requirement" (or cash reserve ratio) is a central bank regulation employed by most, but not all, of the world's central banks
this means that over 90% of the money in the banks is not                by actual money
if everyone came at one time and wanted their money, the banks would not be able to give it to them
this may seem like a fraud, but actually it's not a fraud and it's been working in an amazing way for                  of years
it's not a deception but an amazing tribute to the abilities of the human                       
what enables banks and the entire capitalistic economy to survive and flourish, and covers the money in our bank account, is our trust in the             
banks loan money trusting that one day             -generating businesses will be built
this is how the capitalist economy functions, by trusting the future, and this is why it grows so rapidly
the secret of capitalism is that it finances present expenses with money that has no cover in the present and only may have cover in the future
for most of history, the economy was frozen, it hardly grew at all because it was very hard to finance new                        because people did not trust in the future
if you wanted to build a bakery in the Middle Ages before the rise of the capitalist system, you would need to pay a builder and buy an oven and pots and pans and spoons, but you can't start earning money until you build the bakery, and so the economy was trapped in this viscous circle
economic growth was slow and limited, hard to start and expand
the way out of this was with the capitalist system which is based on credit
people agree to represent goods that don't exist in the present with a special kind of money called credit
later you pay back the credit with interest
money is based on           , credit is a special kind of money which is based on trust in the future
pre-capitalist economies were based on trust of things that existed in the present, e.g. using your countries coins required trust in your current         
credit is more sophisticated is money which is based on trust in things that may exist in the future
we have evidence of credit in the past
loans from ancient           
but most people didn't want to extend much credit because they didn't trust that the future would be better than the present
people in pre-scientific societies didn't believe much in progress, they tended to feel that the world was better in the past
to put this in economic terms, people believed that the total amount of wealth in the world was at best stable if not                   
the revenue of a particular bakery might rise, but only at the expense of another bakery
one city might flourish but only if another city becomes impoverished
that's why many cultures concluded that being rich and making large amounts of money was sinful and bad
credit is the difference between the size of the economic pie today and the size of the economic pie                 
if you believe that the pie will stay the same, there is little reason to give others credit
most loans in the pre-modern world were small, short-termed, and subject to high interest

Ideas and Concepts:

On how capitalism is based on trust in the future, via today's History of Humankind class:

"According to reserve requirement regulations, most banks in the world are allowed to loan up to ten dollars for every dollar that they actually possess. This means that up to 90% of the money in world banks is not covered by actual money that they can pay out, and if everyone wanted to withdraw their money from their bank accounts all at one time, no bank would be able to honor this and they would collapse. This may seem like a fraud, but actually it's not a fraud, and it's been working in an amazing way for hundreds of years. It's not a deception but an amazing tribute to the abilities of the human imagination. What enables banks and the entire capitalistic economy to survive and flourish, and what covers the money in all of our bank accounts, is our trust in the future. Banks loan money trusting that one day income-generating businesses will be built, and so the secret of capitalism is that it finances present expenses with money which, at present, has no cover and only may have cover in the future.

For most of history, however, economies were frozen, hardly growing at all since it was very hard to finance new enterprises since people in general did not trust that the future would be better than the present. Instead, pre-capitalist economies were based on trust of things that existed in the present, e.g. people used their kingdom's or empire's coins because of the trust they had in their current king or emperor. But if they wanted to build a bakery, they would need to pay a builder and buy an oven and pots and pans and spoons, yet they didn't have the money for this and wouldn't be able to start earning money until they built the bakery, and so the economy was trapped in this viscous circle:they couldn't get loans because in general people did not believe that the future could be any better than the present.

This began to change in Europe in the 16th and 17th century for two reasons:(1) the age of colonization began to hint to both kings and merchants that the future might indeed be better than the present:e.g. if they invested their money in ships and sailors, these may one day sail back loaded with riches, and (2) the scientific revolution began to produce better ships, navigational equipment and other technology which increased the chance that those ships would come back loaded with riches. Based on this model of future optimism driven first by colonization and carried forward by advances in science, the global economy has been growing ever since:in 1500, the global production of goods and services is estimated to be 250 billion dollars in today's dollar value, in 2013 it was approximately 60 trillion dollars."
The Context of History and Our Extended Human Family
How Walking Upright Led to Better Social and Cooperative Skills
The Importance of Fire and Cooking
Why Did Other Human Species Become Extinct?
The Cognitive Revolution and the Beginning of Human History
The Language of Homo Sapiens
How Fictive Language Enabled Larger Social Groups
The Power of Imagined Realities
How the Ability to Tell Stories Enabled Humans to Cooperate in Massive Groups
The Cognitive Revolution and the Variety of Human Communities
Spiritual Beliefs of Early Humans
Politics and Warfare of Pre-Agricultural Societies
45,000 Years Ago: Human's Decimation of Australia's Large Mammals
14,000 BC: Human Migration to the Americas
Agriculture: The Good and the Bad
10,000 BC: Agricultural Revolution
The Origins of Agriculture
The Code of Hammurabi and Other Imagined Realities
Inter-Subjective Reality and Romantic Consumerism
The Human Brain's Outsourcing of Mathematics
Unjust and Imagined Hierarchies
Imagined Hierarchies in History
Culturally Defined Gender
Three Theories of Gender Domination
The Direction of Humankind: Global Unity
The Essence of Money
The History of Money
The Historical Definition of Empire
The Relationship between Science, European Imperialism and Capitalism
Science, Capitalism and European Imperialism
Columbus: Last Man of the Middle Ages, Vespucci: First Man of the Modern Age
European Empires, Science, and Capitalism
How Capitalism is Based on Trust in the Future
On the Interdependence of Science and Capitalism
How Capitalism Enabled Small European Countries to Explore and Conquer the World
The Relationship Between Capitalism, the Slave Trade, and Free Market Forces
Industrialization, Energy and Raw Materials
The Second Agricultural Revolution and its Effect on Animal Treatment
The Ethics of Capitalism and Consumerism
On Limitless Energy Resources and the Hegemony of Modern Time Schedules
State/Market vs. Family/Community
Humankind's Rigid and Violent Past, and Flexible and Peaceful Present
Reasons for Our Current Unprecedented Era of International Peace
Three Theories on the History of Happiness
Psychological and Biological Happiness
Measuring Human Happiness
The Future of Cyborgs and Robots
What Do We Want to Want?