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Notes on video lecture:
The Relationship between Science, European Imperialism and Capitalism
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
trade, alone, ideology, Newton, money, psychological, suffer, neutral, political, super, economic, genetics, psychology, 20th, morality, ethical, archeologist, simplistic, dairy, mathematical, revolution, benefit, ideological, thrill, alliance, disease, resources, cancer, expeditions, depresssed, expensive, discoveries
over the last 500 years we have developed a belief that scientists just need to be left            doing their research and development, and they will create for us the ability to live better and better lives
it's a common thought but also a                      one to think that science is simply working for the                of humankind
many scientists have been motivated by the wish to help humankind and enjoy the              of discovering new laws about the natural world and gaining power over it
but what broadly governs the history of science are political, economic and                        interests
science is governed by politics and economics for the simple reason that most of science is a very                    affair
if you are a doctor who is trying to understand             , you need labroatories, test tubes, microscopes, lab assistants, plumbers, cleaners, secretaries
if you are an economist and you are trying to find out what is going on in your economy, you need to collect a lot of data, so you need computers, you need programmers to develop sophoisticated programs
if you are an                         , you need to travel to distant lands, get access to sites, store your findings
without proper funding, the intentions of scientists do not get very far
modern science has managed to achieve wonders thanks to the willingness of governments, business, foundations and private donors to scientific research
without this funding, Galileo,              and Darwin not have reached very far
why did so many people to give money to science?
funding is rarely               , most funding is that is given to scientific organizations has economic, political, or ideological goals
16th century: kings and merchants channeled enormous resources to finance global geographical                        yet they gave no money to research, say, child psychology
invested in this because they felt it would enable them to conquer new lands and set up new            empires, whereas they couldn't see any profit in understanding child                      better
in the middle of the          century, the USA snd the Soviet Union invested enormous resources in the study of nuclear physics, but very little money in underwater archeology
scientists, themselves are not always aware of the political or economic interests that control and support the environments in which they are allowed to work
even if we wanted to fund pure science, it would be impossible to do so, since the                    of humankind are limited
funding science makes us ask the question: what is better and what is more important, and questions regarding what is better and more important are not scientific questions, they are                questions.
by definition, science has no ability to answer ethical questions, it has no pretensions to knowing what should be in the future
only religions and ideologies give answers to the questions what is good, what is important, and what should be done
dilemma: two scientists from the same department with equal skills who apply for a $1 million grant
professor A wants to study a                in the udders of dairy cows which causes a 10% reduction in milk production
professor B wants to study if dairy cows              mentally when they are separated by their calves by the dairy industry
assume that money is not unlimited and you can't fund both projects, which project are you going to fund? There is no scientific answer to this question, this question only has answers that are based in religion,                 , economics, politics, or personal opinion
there is no                          equation to tell you where the money should go
in today's world, professor A has a much better chance than professor B at getting the           , not because udder diseases in cows are scientifically more interesting or important than the mentality of cows, but because the            industry which stands to benefit from this research has more political and economic power than, say, the animal rights lobby, which may like to finance the second project
one of the only ways in our current society that professor B can win the funding for the project is that if she can show that can have                  beneifts
e.g. if it can be shown the when cows are                     , they give less milk, and so if their mood can be improved, they will give a certain amount more milk per year, and that there is market for                            medication for dairy cows
thus science has a hard time setting its own priority since the priorities are always set by the political and economic system for political and economic reasons
not only does science have difficulty determining its own agenda, but also what to do with its                       
for example, it is unclear what to do with our increasting knowledge of                 
should we use it to allow parents to select individual characteristics of their children, and enable humans who can live 150, 200, 250 years?
should we use it to create cows with           -sized udders?
various kinds of governments and institutions would use these findings for completely different purposes
since science alone has no                  of its own, there is no scientific reason to say one purpose is better than the other, this is the task of humans to decide which mix of ideologies will be applied
scientific research can flourish only when it has some                  with a particular ideology
the ideology justifies the cost of the research, influences the scientific agenda, and determines what to do with the discoveries
it's not the job of the scientist to do this, the job of the scientist is to as accurately as possible discover the laws of the natural world in order to give us new powers
hence in order to understand the course of the scientific                     , it's not enough to study the famous achievements of scientists like Galileo, Newton, Darwin, and Einstein
in order to understand the development of science in the last few centuries, we have to take into account the ideological, economic, and political forces that not only shaped the agenda of physics, chemisty and biology, but also decided which discoveries to mass produce in order to achieve their ideological, economic, and                    aims.
to understand modern science, you have to take account of two important forces:
1. European imperialism
2. capitalism
the feedback loop of science, empires, and capitalism has been the has been the chief motor of history for the past 500 years
Funding science makes us ask the question: what is better and what is more important, and questions regarding what is better and more important are not scientific questions, they are ethical questions.
Scientific research can flourish only when it has some alliance with a particular ideology.
The feedback loop of science, empires, and capitalism has been the has been the chief motor of history for the past 500 years.
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The Importance of Fire and Cooking
Why Did Other Human Species Become Extinct?
The Cognitive Revolution and the Beginning of Human History
The Language of Homo Sapiens
How Fictive Language Enabled Larger Social Groups
The Power of Imagined Realities
How the Ability to Tell Stories Enabled Humans to Cooperate in Massive Groups
The Cognitive Revolution and the Variety of Human Communities
Spiritual Beliefs of Early Humans
Politics and Warfare of Pre-Agricultural Societies
45,000 Years Ago: Human's Decimation of Australia's Large Mammals
14,000 BC: Human Migration to the Americas
Agriculture: The Good and the Bad
10,000 BC: Agricultural Revolution
The Origins of Agriculture
The Code of Hammurabi and Other Imagined Realities
Inter-Subjective Reality and Romantic Consumerism
The Human Brain's Outsourcing of Mathematics
Unjust and Imagined Hierarchies
Imagined Hierarchies in History
Culturally Defined Gender
Three Theories of Gender Domination
The Direction of Humankind: Global Unity
The Essence of Money
The History of Money
The Historical Definition of Empire
The Relationship between Science, European Imperialism and Capitalism
Science, Capitalism and European Imperialism
Columbus: Last Man of the Middle Ages, Vespucci: First Man of the Modern Age
European Empires, Science, and Capitalism
How Capitalism is Based on Trust in the Future
On the Interdependence of Science and Capitalism
How Capitalism Enabled Small European Countries to Explore and Conquer the World
The Relationship Between Capitalism, the Slave Trade, and Free Market Forces
Industrialization, Energy and Raw Materials
The Second Agricultural Revolution and its Effect on Animal Treatment
The Ethics of Capitalism and Consumerism
On Limitless Energy Resources and the Hegemony of Modern Time Schedules
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Humankind's Rigid and Violent Past, and Flexible and Peaceful Present
Reasons for Our Current Unprecedented Era of International Peace
Three Theories on the History of Happiness
Psychological and Biological Happiness
Measuring Human Happiness
The Future of Cyborgs and Robots
What Do We Want to Want?