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Notes on video lecture:
The Second Agricultural Revolution and its Effect on Animal Treatment
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
industrial, assembly, emotional, anxiety, fiber, greed, children, bond, inquisitive, treated, ignored, agriculture, indifference, cages, groom, physical, raising, psychologically, urban, dummy, slaughtered, enclosure, sentient, mother, imperfect, raw, transporting, wire, Harlow, working, hatred, energy, natural, peasants
the industrial revolution was the result of combining cheap and abundant              and raw materials
this was felt first in                       
when thinking of the industrial revolution, we usually think of cities and factories and terrible                conditions
machines such as tractors began to do the work which had been performed by humans and animals or not performed at all
artificial fertilizers
artificial insecticides
industrially produced hormones and medications for animals
refrigerators, airplanes, trucks
enabled                          of produce and animals globally
animals were seen less as                  creatures and more as machines for producing food
their bodies are becoming shaped by scientists in accordance with                      needs
egg-laying hens have a natural need to move around, t            other chicks and chickens
the egg industry often locks hens in 22 x 25 cm cages
hens receive enough food but are not able to engage in                activities
cages are often so small the hens are unable to flap their wings
pigs are some of the most intelligent and                        animals, much like the great apes
yet they are confined in small           
not able to turn around
keeps in crates for four weeks after their birth
cows often live almost all of their years inside a small                   
machines bring them food
machines milk cows
treated as machines: they take in        materials and produce the product milk
chicks are sorted by factory workers into those which are useful or not (male chicks and                    female chicks are not useful to the industry), those which not useful are often shredded, disposed of, or fed to other animals
this is not caused by              of animals
it is fueled by            coupled by                         
most of us don't think about or know where our meat and eggs come from or the way the animals were                which produced this food
animal emotions evolved because they helped the species reproduce
in the wild, cows had to know how to form relations with other cows in order to reproduce
play is the way young mammals learn social behavior
calf stays near the              since it is essential for the survival of the calf
today in modern farm factories, cows are separated from calves
the needs of the calf to play and bond with other cows and calves, and to be near its mother is               
from the perspective of the calf, it still feels a strong urge to          with its mother and play with other calves
if these urges are not fulfilled the cow suffers                               
the tragedy of modern agriculture is that it cares for animals'                  needs but neglects their psychological needs
Harry             , experiments 1950s
monkeys were raised by            mothers
one had a bottle so the monkey could suck and eat
the other was made from wood which made her resemble a real monkey but did not provide the infant monkey with any food
Harlow would assume that the infant would cling to the          mother which gave them milk
but to their surprise, they infant monkeys preferred the mother that was softer
he suspected they did this because they were cold
so he put heaters in the wire mothers
but nevertheless the majority preferred the clothed mother
this indicated that the monkeys have                    needs
these monkeys also grew up to be emotionally unstable
had difficult communicating
suffered from                and aggression
this study also changed the view of human child psychology
in the 1940s and 1950s, it was believed                  simply needed physical needs met
orphanages from that time separated children from each other and from adults, mainly because they feared disease
produced psychological traumas and problems
these studies indicated that not only monkeys but humans have psychological needs which can be met through social contact with other members of the species
industrial agriculture for the most part ignores these findings when it comes to                animals such as cows and pigs
yet in the last 100 years modern agriculture has made an immense contribution to human productivity and food reserves
billions of farm animals live as part of a kind of mechanized                  line
10 billion animals are                        each year by industrial agriculture
in almost all previous human societies,                  comprised 80-90% of the population, and was true until the earlier 20th century
industrial agriculture enabled a large percent of the population to move from farmers to other jobs
today only about 15% of the total U.S. workforce produce, process and sell the nation’s food and           , and the U.S. exports food to other countries
without the agricultural revolution of the last century,            industrial revolution


######################### (1905-1981)
American psychologist best known for his maternal-separation, dependency needs, and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys
  • demonstrated the importance of care-giving and companionship in social and cognitive development
  • worked at the University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • research in the 1950s
  • worked with Abraham Maslow (hierarchy of needs)
  • his experiments were controversial since they included rearing infant macaques in isolation chambers for up to 24 months

Ideas and Concepts:

On the origin of consumerism, via this morning's History of Humankind class: "The flood of new products created in the last 100 years are the realized dreams humans have had for centuries, and during these last 100 years, for the first time in human history, the supply of goods and products began to outstrip demand, which created an entirely new economic problem:the problem of consumption. When there are so many products, who is going to buy all this new stuff?"
The Context of History and Our Extended Human Family
How Walking Upright Led to Better Social and Cooperative Skills
The Importance of Fire and Cooking
Why Did Other Human Species Become Extinct?
The Cognitive Revolution and the Beginning of Human History
The Language of Homo Sapiens
How Fictive Language Enabled Larger Social Groups
The Power of Imagined Realities
How the Ability to Tell Stories Enabled Humans to Cooperate in Massive Groups
The Cognitive Revolution and the Variety of Human Communities
Spiritual Beliefs of Early Humans
Politics and Warfare of Pre-Agricultural Societies
45,000 Years Ago: Human's Decimation of Australia's Large Mammals
14,000 BC: Human Migration to the Americas
Agriculture: The Good and the Bad
10,000 BC: Agricultural Revolution
The Origins of Agriculture
The Code of Hammurabi and Other Imagined Realities
Inter-Subjective Reality and Romantic Consumerism
The Human Brain's Outsourcing of Mathematics
Unjust and Imagined Hierarchies
Imagined Hierarchies in History
Culturally Defined Gender
Three Theories of Gender Domination
The Direction of Humankind: Global Unity
The Essence of Money
The History of Money
The Historical Definition of Empire
The Relationship between Science, European Imperialism and Capitalism
Science, Capitalism and European Imperialism
Columbus: Last Man of the Middle Ages, Vespucci: First Man of the Modern Age
European Empires, Science, and Capitalism
How Capitalism is Based on Trust in the Future
On the Interdependence of Science and Capitalism
How Capitalism Enabled Small European Countries to Explore and Conquer the World
The Relationship Between Capitalism, the Slave Trade, and Free Market Forces
Industrialization, Energy and Raw Materials
The Second Agricultural Revolution and its Effect on Animal Treatment
The Ethics of Capitalism and Consumerism
On Limitless Energy Resources and the Hegemony of Modern Time Schedules
State/Market vs. Family/Community
Humankind's Rigid and Violent Past, and Flexible and Peaceful Present
Reasons for Our Current Unprecedented Era of International Peace
Three Theories on the History of Happiness
Psychological and Biological Happiness
Measuring Human Happiness
The Future of Cyborgs and Robots
What Do We Want to Want?