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Notes on video lecture:
The Ethics of Capitalism and Consumerism
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
buy, city, psychology, repairing, food, loan, paradise, grow, problem, religious, frugality, farmers, Buddha, consumerism, medieval, scarcity, morality, consumption, debt, agriculture, heart, sugar, fat, little, tough, torn, mediators, food, countless, luxuries, Confucianism, lungs, diets, lungs, spend
one of the most important developments in the industrial revolution was the changes that took place in                       
it enabled smaller and smaller number of                to produce more and more food
this enabled other people to move to the          to start working in offices and producing all kinds of cars, refrigerators, etc.
this created a new problem:
the modern, capitalist economy must constantly         
it's not enough to produce more and more products: somebody must also        all these projects
to encourage people to buy products which were being produced, a new kind of ethic appeared: the ethic of                       
consumerism
most people throughout history lived under conditions of                 , so frugality was a very important part of ethics
people believed that being satisfied with the little that you have is good, and indulging yourself in                  was bad and corrupt
a good person should never throw away         , should always finish what your mother puts on your plate
if your clothes get         , you don't throw them away and buy a new pair, you repair them
this was a very important part of human                 
only kings and aristocrats allowed themselves to publicly renounce such values of                    and to conspicuously flaunt their riches
but when the industrial revolution solved the problem of scarcity, it created the problem of                       : who is going to buy all this stuff?
and so a new ethic was born which was called consumerism
the ethics of consumerism teach us that it is indeed a good thing to throw out old clothes instead of                    them, to constantly buy products whether you need them or not, to treat and spoil ourselves with all kinds of luxuries, to overeat food until we have            problems, overdose our kids with            and        to the point of hyperactivity and rotting teeth and obese bodies, to ruin our lives with excess           , to smoke our            black
consumerism turns previous ethics on its head by seeing frugality as a               , as a kind of psychological disorder, as an abnormality, even as unpatriotic
the ethics of consumerism has been bolstered by modern                      to convince people that indulging yourself is good for you, whereas frugality, being satisfied with             , is a form of self-oppression and something you should avoid
if you want a new jacket, go ahead, buy it! if you want a new car or house, go ahead and take a          from the bank and buy it! if you want to eat that cake, go ahead, eat it! listen to yourself, if you really something just go ahead and buy it! this is the voice of the ethics of consumerism
consumerism has turned many areas of the earth's human population into very good consumers
we buy                    products that we don't need and many we can't even afford, and until recently we didn't even know they existed
manufacturers deliberately design short-term goods and invent new version of already existing and perfectly good products just in order that more products can be sold
shopping and eating has become a favorite pastime of more and more people
consumer goods have become essential                    in relationships between family members, spouses, and parents and children
if you want to express your feelings for someone, you buy them something
even                    holidays such as Christmas became shopping festivals
in the United States, Memorial Day used to be a solemn day to remember fallen soldiers, but it, too, as been turned into a day where stores have Memorial Day sales to attract customers
the rise of consumerism is represented most clearly in the          market:
each year the United States spends more on diets than on money that would be able to feed hungry people in the rest of the world
the practice of eating too much and then spending money on            to get rid of the excess weight is a double victory for consumerism
how to square the conflicting goals consumerism and capitalism?
capitalism says that one should reinvest profits in order to increase production
consumerism says that one should            profits on consumer goods
in                  Europe, the royalty lived luxuriously whereas the lower classes lived frugally
today, the roles have been switched: it is often the wealthy who live the most frugally, taking care of and carefully managing their assets and investments which they reinvest in production, whereas the majority of the public go into          buying all kinds of cars, houses, TVs, and holiday cruises which they don't necessarily need and often can't afford
the capitalist ethic and the consumerist ethic are thus complementary:
the commandment of the rich is: invest! you must invest your money!
the commandment of the rest of the people is: buy! you must buy more!
most ethical systems throughout history presented people with a pretty            deal:
Christianity, Buddhism, and                          promised people paradise, but only if they could cultivate compassion and overcome their cravings and restrain their selfish interests, yet most Christians, Buddhists and followers of Confucianism failed at these challenges never being able to live up to the demands of Jesus,              and Confucius
in contrast, what is revolutionary about the capitalist/consumerist ethic is that it is the first set of ethics in history in which most people actually do what they are told to do, the capitalist/consumerist ethic promises                  here on earth under the condition that the rich remain greedy and keep reinvesting their money in the economy, and that the rest of the people give freedom to their cravings and passions and keep buying as many products and services as they can

Spelling Corrections:

ConfucionismConfucianism
pasttimespastimes

Ideas and Concepts:

How consumerism reversed the ethics of frugality, via tonight's History of Humankind class:

"Most people throughout history lived under conditions of scarcity, so frugality has been a very important part of human ethics throughout history, i.e. people believed that being satisfied with the little that you have was good, whereas indulging yourself in luxuries was bad and corrupt. A good person, therefore, should never throw away food, should always finish what's on his plate, and if his clothes are torn, should mend them instead of throwing them away and buying a new pair.

However, when the industrial revolution solved the problem of scarcity, it created the problem of consumption:who is going to buy all this stuff? And so a new kind of ethics arose called consumerism. The ethics of consumerism teach us that it is a good thing to buy and consume as much as we can, to buy and consume more food than we need, to throw out old clothes and buy new clothes instead, to constantly buy new products whether we need them or not, to treat and spoil ourselves with products, services and luxuries. The main tenet of consumerism is:thou shalt buy.

The ethics of consumerism has been bolstered by the advertising industry using modern psychology to convince people that indulging yourself is good for you, whereas frugality, being satisfied with little, is old-fashioned, unattractive, and generally something to forget and avoid.

Today, large portions of the human population have been turned into good consumers. We buy countless products that we don't need and many we can't afford. Manufacturers deliberately design short-term goods and invent new versions of perfectly good products in order that more products be sold. Advertising money is spent to get children and adults addicted to sugar, medications, alcohol, cigarettes, video games, often with the purpose to produce and track individuals as they keep buying products from one age and economic spending group to the next. Shopping and eating have become pastimes in themselves. Consumer goods have become essential mediators in relationships between family members, spouses, and children:we learn through advertising that if we want to show our love for somebody, we should buy them something. Even religious holidays have been turned into shopping festivals. In the United States, Memorial Day used to be a solemn day to remember fallen soldiers:today it is used by stores to put on Memorial Day sales in order to attract more customers to buy more products.

There is no better place that we see this rise of consumerism than in the food industry where each year people in the United States spend more money on diets than would be necessary to feed the hungry throughout the world, and where the practice of eating to excess and then spending money to lose weight is a double victory for consumerism."
On the complementary ethics of capitalism and consumerism, via this morning's History of Humankind class:

"In medieval Europe, it was generally the royalty who lived luxurious lives whereas the lower classes lived frugally. Today, the ethics of capitalism and consumerism have generally reversed these roles:it is now often the wealthy who live frugally, carefully managing their assets and investments which they then reinvest in the economy in order to make more money (adhering to the ethics of capitalism), whereas the majority of the rest of the population often go into debt buying and enjoying all kinds of cars, houses, TVs, and holiday cruises which they don't necessarily need and often can't afford (adhering to the ethics of consumerism).

Thus, the ethics of capitalism and consumerism are complementary:the commandment for the wealthy is "Invest! You must invest your money!" and the commandment for the rest of the people is "Buy! You must buy more!"

Most ethical systems throughout history have presented people with a pretty tough deal:Christianity, Buddhism, and Confucianism promise people paradise, but only if they can cultivate compassion and overcome their cravings and restrain their selfish interests. Most Christians, Buddhists and Confucians have never lived up to the demands of Jesus, Buddha or Confucius.

In contrast, what is revolutionary about the capitalism/consumerism ethic is that it is one of the first ethical systems in history in which most people actually succeed at what they are told to do:capitalism's ethic promises paradise here on earth under the condition that the rich remain frugal, greedy, and constantly reinvest their money back into the economy, and the consumerism ethic promises the rest of the people paradise here on earth if they give freedom to their cravings and passions and keep buying as many products and services as they can."
The Context of History and Our Extended Human Family
How Walking Upright Led to Better Social and Cooperative Skills
The Importance of Fire and Cooking
Why Did Other Human Species Become Extinct?
The Cognitive Revolution and the Beginning of Human History
The Language of Homo Sapiens
How Fictive Language Enabled Larger Social Groups
The Power of Imagined Realities
How the Ability to Tell Stories Enabled Humans to Cooperate in Massive Groups
The Cognitive Revolution and the Variety of Human Communities
Spiritual Beliefs of Early Humans
Politics and Warfare of Pre-Agricultural Societies
45,000 Years Ago: Human's Decimation of Australia's Large Mammals
14,000 BC: Human Migration to the Americas
Agriculture: The Good and the Bad
10,000 BC: Agricultural Revolution
The Origins of Agriculture
The Code of Hammurabi and Other Imagined Realities
Inter-Subjective Reality and Romantic Consumerism
The Human Brain's Outsourcing of Mathematics
Unjust and Imagined Hierarchies
Imagined Hierarchies in History
Culturally Defined Gender
Three Theories of Gender Domination
The Direction of Humankind: Global Unity
The Essence of Money
The History of Money
The Historical Definition of Empire
The Relationship between Science, European Imperialism and Capitalism
Science, Capitalism and European Imperialism
Columbus: Last Man of the Middle Ages, Vespucci: First Man of the Modern Age
European Empires, Science, and Capitalism
How Capitalism is Based on Trust in the Future
On the Interdependence of Science and Capitalism
How Capitalism Enabled Small European Countries to Explore and Conquer the World
The Relationship Between Capitalism, the Slave Trade, and Free Market Forces
Industrialization, Energy and Raw Materials
The Second Agricultural Revolution and its Effect on Animal Treatment
The Ethics of Capitalism and Consumerism
On Limitless Energy Resources and the Hegemony of Modern Time Schedules
State/Market vs. Family/Community
Humankind's Rigid and Violent Past, and Flexible and Peaceful Present
Reasons for Our Current Unprecedented Era of International Peace
Three Theories on the History of Happiness
Psychological and Biological Happiness
Measuring Human Happiness
The Future of Cyborgs and Robots
What Do We Want to Want?