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Notes on video lecture:
Spiritual Beliefs of Early Humans
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
desires, humans, local, reconstruct, chauvinistic, ate, hunters, communicate, bird, directly, song, pacify, animist, different, hierarchy, Aztec, generic, barrier, Cueva, evidence, theistic, Venus, agricultural, goddess
mental and spiritual lives of pre-                        -revolution humans
it's a lot harder to know what ancient people believed than what they       , especially with no records of writing
animist beliefs
it is generally believed that ancient peoples had                beliefs
Latin "anima" = soul or spirit
world is full of animated beings which can communicate with each everything                 
all rocks and trees have feelings,                and needs, might be angry about something that people did
people might go to the rock and talk to it, ask for help
animists that humans could                        with immaterial entities, which you can communicate
animists believe that you can communicate directory in speech,         , and ceremony with wolves, clouds and rivers
               may address deers before killing in order to pay homage and not make the deer god angry
shaman contacts spirit who caused the sickness and tries to              it or tries to scare it away
what separated animism with later religions is that in animism, the entities which you communicate with are            beings such as a particular trees or rocks or spirits in your own valley, but not great gods who lived above the clouds and were responsible for everything
animists believed that there is no                for communication between humans and rocks, trees and animals, neither is there strict hierarchy in the world, humans are not above or below other spirits, just existing with them, certainly behind affected both negatively and positively by them but there is rarely an ordered                   
the world of animists does not revolve around              or any other particular being
it's not a specific religion but a                name of many beliefs which have a common core approach to the world: no hierarchy and ability to communicate with spiritual entities
may have been just as varied as theist religions today
compare animism with theism
most cultures since the agricultural revolution 12,000 years ago have been                  religions
theism approaches the world with the belief that there is a hierarchy in which gods are at the top and humans and other entities in the world are below them
theistic religions vary widely: Greek Pagan religions, Hindu, Islam, Judaism, Protestants, Catholics,            priests, Muslim Sufi mystics, viking warriors, Roman legionnaires, Egyptian peasants. They all generally believe in theistic gods as opposed to animist spirits.
we don't have engouh evidence to                        detailed world views of people who lived 30,000 and 40,000 years ago
painting: Lascaux cave painting of bull, man and bird, made by people who lived there 15,000 to 20,000 years ago
what does it mean?
some say that it is a man with the head of a bird with erect penis being killed by a bison, that the bird symbolized the soul being released by body
this could be yet there is little other evidence that this is the case, e.g. that the          symbolizes the soul, we lack other writings, drawings and artifacts which indicate this
statue:            of Willendorf
20,000 years ago
found in Austria
similar statues that looked like this were found made of many materials all over Europe
scholars say that these statues are of a woman               , that they worshiped women and were led by women
this is a theory with little evidence
other scholars say that these statues are proof of a                          societies and represent an ancient attempt
other scholars say that these statues are ancient type of pornography
we don't have much other evidence so we are left with these theory
art:            de las Manos
13,000 to 9,000 years ago
hand imprints on the walls of the cave
it looks as if the hands are moving toward us from within the wall
we know these hand prints were made by                    people, i.e. we can tell which hands were from men, women, old, and young
there are many theories but we have no hard                  of why they made these paintings
The Context of History and Our Extended Human Family
How Walking Upright Led to Better Social and Cooperative Skills
The Importance of Fire and Cooking
Why Did Other Human Species Become Extinct?
The Cognitive Revolution and the Beginning of Human History
The Language of Homo Sapiens
How Fictive Language Enabled Larger Social Groups
The Power of Imagined Realities
How the Ability to Tell Stories Enabled Humans to Cooperate in Massive Groups
The Cognitive Revolution and the Variety of Human Communities
Spiritual Beliefs of Early Humans
Politics and Warfare of Pre-Agricultural Societies
45,000 Years Ago: Human's Decimation of Australia's Large Mammals
14,000 BC: Human Migration to the Americas
Agriculture: The Good and the Bad
10,000 BC: Agricultural Revolution
The Origins of Agriculture
The Code of Hammurabi and Other Imagined Realities
Inter-Subjective Reality and Romantic Consumerism
The Human Brain's Outsourcing of Mathematics
Unjust and Imagined Hierarchies
Imagined Hierarchies in History
Culturally Defined Gender
Three Theories of Gender Domination
The Direction of Humankind: Global Unity
The Essence of Money
The History of Money
The Historical Definition of Empire
The Relationship between Science, European Imperialism and Capitalism
Science, Capitalism and European Imperialism
Columbus: Last Man of the Middle Ages, Vespucci: First Man of the Modern Age
European Empires, Science, and Capitalism
How Capitalism is Based on Trust in the Future
On the Interdependence of Science and Capitalism
How Capitalism Enabled Small European Countries to Explore and Conquer the World
The Relationship Between Capitalism, the Slave Trade, and Free Market Forces
Industrialization, Energy and Raw Materials
The Second Agricultural Revolution and its Effect on Animal Treatment
The Ethics of Capitalism and Consumerism
On Limitless Energy Resources and the Hegemony of Modern Time Schedules
State/Market vs. Family/Community
Humankind's Rigid and Violent Past, and Flexible and Peaceful Present
Reasons for Our Current Unprecedented Era of International Peace
Three Theories on the History of Happiness
Psychological and Biological Happiness
Measuring Human Happiness
The Future of Cyborgs and Robots
What Do We Want to Want?