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Notes on video lecture:
The Cognitive Revolution and the Beginning of Human History
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Guinea, navigate, Neanderthals, migrating, oil, mutation, abilities, Japan, Australia, needle, Siberia, migrate, influential, Eurasia, Alaska, cognitive, jewelry, small, Africa, Korea, million, rudimentary, extinction, soloensis, advantage, hammers
for more than 2                years, the earth was populated with a number of human species, not just one
from 2 million years ago to around 70,000 years ago, these human species were for the most part unimportant animals living in the middle of the food chain and had a            impact on the environment around them, and they had not done anything particularly                       
70,000 years ago something began to change:
Homo sapiens began                    out of Africa
as they spread out onto the                land mass, they drove the other human species (e.g. Homo neanderthalensis [Europe], Homo denisova [Asia/              ], and Homo                    [Java]) into extinction
Indications that 70,000 years ago something special was happening to Homo sapiens which gave them new                   
INDICATION #1: the ability to               
70,000 years ago, Homo sapiens in East              looked just like us
if you could take a body of a Homo sapiens from 70,000 and gave it to a doctor today to dissect and analyze, he would find all organs in their relative sizes as we have today
the brains of Homo sapiens 100,000 years ago were also identical in shape and size to ours, yet they did not produce any sophisticated tool, did not accomplish any special feats, and they did not enjoy any                    over the other human species.
when Homo sapiens first started to migrate to the Middle East 100,000 years ago, they were driven back by the                         
70,000 years ago, Homo sapiens migrated again into and across the Arabian peninsula into the Middle East, but this time they were able to drive the Neanderthals out and continued on to drive all other human species to                     
60,000 years ago reached area of what is now           
45,000 years ago, Homo sapiens crossed the open sea from Indonesia and landed in                   
no other human species had been able to do this
had to learn how to make boats or rafts
15,000 years ago Homo sapiens crossed into North America from Siberian             
had to learn how to survive in this cold environment
Sapiens who had evolved to live in the warm and dry temperatures of Africa had to adapt quickly to these new areas in which they were migrating, e.g. India, New             , and Siberia
that they could do this was an indication that something was happening which gave them this ability to migrate, chase out other human species, and adapt themselves to the new environments
INDICATION #2: the appearance of the             
was able to cross the ocean from Indonesia to Australia, i.e. had developed some kind of sail boat or craft
later reached other islands such as           
another very important invention that we begin to see in the archeological record about 40,000 to 50,000 years ago is the needle. This may not strike you as a particularly useful invention but it was one of the most influential inventions in the history of humankind. Before the needle, Homo sapiens and the Neanderthal had                        clothes such as skins of bears or deer, but the needle enabled them to attach materials together, dress in layers, make tents and boots, and thus made it possible to successfully live in colder temperature environments which enabled them within 40,000 years to migrate onto all of the six land continents.
INDICATION #3: the appearance of the        lamp
used animal fat in container to keep fire lit
this enabled Homo sapiens to                  dark caves as well as create painting in dark caves
the cave paintings in southern France and Spain date to the time that the Homo sapiens arrived in Europe and began replacing the Neanderthals
so the oil lamp was a key to an artistic revolution
INDICATION #4: improvement of older tools
for hundreds of thousands of years up to about 70,000 years ago, all human species (Neanderthal, Sapiens, Denisova, Homo erectus) were all building pretty much the same stone knives, spear points, axes, and                without change.
then from 70,000 years onward in Homo sapiens, we see continued improvement in these tools
INDICATION #5: art and               
40,000 years ago: cave dwelling art
INDICATION #6: appearance of trade
INDICATION #7: societies of 100s of people not just dozens of people
INDICATION #8: first evidence of imagination
Lion man of the Hohlenstein Stadel
40,000 years ago
oldest known animal-shaped sculpture in the world and one of the oldest known sculptures in general
lion head with human body
shows that ability for Homo sapiens to imagine things that don't really exist
lion-men existed only in the imagination of Sapiens
all of these achievements were a result of a revolution in the                    abilities in Homo sapiens
to communicate
to remember
to think
common speculative theory of why the cognitive revolution happened
some minor genetic                  which caused some change in the internal structure of the brain, perhaps bringing two two areas closer into contact
no matter how the change happened, the more interesting question is what were the characteristics which this change brought about that gave Homo sapiens the ability to develop sophistication more rapidly than other human species
The Context of History and Our Extended Human Family
How Walking Upright Led to Better Social and Cooperative Skills
The Importance of Fire and Cooking
Why Did Other Human Species Become Extinct?
The Cognitive Revolution and the Beginning of Human History
The Language of Homo Sapiens
How Fictive Language Enabled Larger Social Groups
The Power of Imagined Realities
How the Ability to Tell Stories Enabled Humans to Cooperate in Massive Groups
The Cognitive Revolution and the Variety of Human Communities
Spiritual Beliefs of Early Humans
Politics and Warfare of Pre-Agricultural Societies
45,000 Years Ago: Human's Decimation of Australia's Large Mammals
14,000 BC: Human Migration to the Americas
Agriculture: The Good and the Bad
10,000 BC: Agricultural Revolution
The Origins of Agriculture
The Code of Hammurabi and Other Imagined Realities
Inter-Subjective Reality and Romantic Consumerism
The Human Brain's Outsourcing of Mathematics
Unjust and Imagined Hierarchies
Imagined Hierarchies in History
Culturally Defined Gender
Three Theories of Gender Domination
The Direction of Humankind: Global Unity
The Essence of Money
The History of Money
The Historical Definition of Empire
The Relationship between Science, European Imperialism and Capitalism
Science, Capitalism and European Imperialism
Columbus: Last Man of the Middle Ages, Vespucci: First Man of the Modern Age
European Empires, Science, and Capitalism
How Capitalism is Based on Trust in the Future
On the Interdependence of Science and Capitalism
How Capitalism Enabled Small European Countries to Explore and Conquer the World
The Relationship Between Capitalism, the Slave Trade, and Free Market Forces
Industrialization, Energy and Raw Materials
The Second Agricultural Revolution and its Effect on Animal Treatment
The Ethics of Capitalism and Consumerism
On Limitless Energy Resources and the Hegemony of Modern Time Schedules
State/Market vs. Family/Community
Humankind's Rigid and Violent Past, and Flexible and Peaceful Present
Reasons for Our Current Unprecedented Era of International Peace
Three Theories on the History of Happiness
Psychological and Biological Happiness
Measuring Human Happiness
The Future of Cyborgs and Robots
What Do We Want to Want?