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Notes on video lecture:
Reasons for Our Current Unprecedented Era of International Peace
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
price, scenario, Indonesia, Eritrea, response, basis, first, Peruvian, fear, empires, diamond, trade, wars, conquest, wage, suicide, invade, Assyrians, naive, soldiers, cultural, dynamism, Silicon, profitable, nuclear, independent, directors, badly, superpower, economic, conquered, Kuwait, juntas, enrich, fragile, WWIII, Bolivia, collapse, mines, Jordan, Gold, minds, California, peaceful
last few decades have been characterized by the peaceful                  of the European empires
these empires have been replaced by dozens of new                        states
this could have created new opportunities for wars between all of these new, independent states
since 1945, however, states generally don't forcibly              other states anymore as they have throughout history
such conquests have been the            of political history since the beginning of states and kings up to the middle of the 20th century
this is how most great                in history were established and grew
throughout history, it was generally the case that one lived in a kingdom in constant          that the neighboring kingdom might invade one's territory, kill, enslave, and annex them to that kingdom
in most parts of the world, this simply doesn't happen anymore as it did during the campaigns of conquests by the Romans,                   , Mongols, and Ottomans
since 1945 no independent country recognized by the United Nations has been                    and wiped off the map
limited international wars still occur and many, many people die in these wars, but                  wars no longer exist as they did through that last 10,000 years of human political history
this is not just true of Western Europe
South America
often we don't think of politics in South America as being very                 
we have images of              and generals inciting coups and revolutions
yet in terms of international wars in which borders are moved and people are conquered, it has been a very peaceful area of the world, the last wars were:
1981: Falklands War between Argentina and UK (neither country declared war)
1941: Ecuadorian–                 War
1932: Paraguay-Bolivia War
1884: Chile vs.               /Peru
Arab world
we don't think of this area as a particularly peaceful zone of the world
only one occasion in which on Arab country invaded another Arab country in order to conquer it
1990: Iraqi invasion of             , seven months
serious border clashes
1970: Syria vs.             
many armed interventions of one Arab country in the affairs of another Arab country
Syrians intervened in Lebanon for many years
many civil wars and revolutions
other Muslim countries that are not Arab countries
Iran, Turkey,                   , Pakistan
1980s: Iran/Iraq war
Africa
the vast majority of conflicts since 1945 have been civil wars, revolutions, and conflicts
very few African countries have invaded other African countries in the hope of conquering it or part of it
there is an argument that there have been periods of peace before, e.g. in Europe between 1871 and 1914 yet it ended very           
the argument is that all periods of peace in the past have ended in war, e.g. as in 1871-1914 ended in World War I
so no one can guarantee that            will not erupt in the near or distant future
but the peace that the world is experiencing today is different than any other period of peace in history
peace has two meanings
1. the absence of war
this was the kind of peace that existed in other periods of history, e.g. 1871-1914
very                since there was always a plausible scenario for war within one year
was generally true throughout history
2. the impossibility of war
for most countries in the world, not all, but most, there is no possible                  leading to full scale war in one year
there may be a border clash, or a misunderstanding, which can lead to international incidents
there are some countries where war is plausible, e.g. Syria and Israel, or Ethiopia and               
some people say that to say the world is in a new era of peace is           
this may be true since we don't know the future, but the fact that so many people, as well as companies, organizations, and states run their daily affairs with this level of naivety that war is implausible, is a evidence of how far world peace has come
the reasons for this new era of peace
1. the            of war has gone up dramatically
it is much more costly today to wage serious war than previously, especially                weapons
nuclear weapons made the price of war so high that it led to countries not engaging in major wars, since it would turn into collective               
2. war is less profitable
throughout history, kings and emperors and sultans could enrich themselves through conquering, looting, and annexing neighboring territories
most wealth was material wealth such as cows, fields, buildings, gold mines, and slaves, and so through looting it was relatively easy and straightforward to attain
today, wealth in the world depends more and more on human capital such as knowledge, complex social-economic structures like banks and corporations
since most wealth today is knowledge and organizational wealth, it is very difficult to conquer it, loot it, and annex it
consider the state of                     
it is one of the ten richest states in the world today
originally built on the          Rush, transformed from a no-mans land into an important economic and political center
today the gold mines in California play a very peripheral role
most more important is                Valley where the Googles and Facebooks have their headquarters and Hollywood
try to imagine if the Chinese would decide to "invade California" in order to              themselves
the Chinese would send a fleet of                  across the Pacific Ocean and lad million of soldiers
even if they managed to win this war, what would they gain? The answer is they would gain very little because you cannot conquer Silicon Valley.
you can conquer the physical valley itself, but the wealth of the area does not come from fields and            and land
the wealth of Silicon Valley resides in the            of Google engineers and Facebook developers, and these people, along with all the actors and                    in Hollywood will all run away from California long before the Chinese conquer it, they will be on the first plane to New York, Paris, or somewhere else to set up and continue business and create more wealth
so it's not possible to enrich yourself easily by conquering a different country
there are some places where wealth is still old-fashioned wealth like                mines and oil fields, and these are exactly the places where serious international wars still take place, e.g. the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and Iran, two of the only major invasions of one country into another since WWII both occurred in an area of the world were there is an abundance of old-fashioned wealth mostly in the form of oil wells
3. peace is more                     
in traditional agricultural economies through history, long distance trade and foreign investment were side shows that had little                  benefit, which meant that peace with neighboring countries had little economic benefit other than avoiding the cost of war, but otherwise, international peace did not have any profits of its own
in contrast, in our modern capitalist economy, foreign trade and investments have become very important to the economy
it's profitable to remain at peace because you can conduct international            and enjoy foreign investments
today, peace makes your country more prosperous
4.                  benefit of peace
throughout history most elites who governed countries saw war either as something good in itself, or as a necessary evil which we are obliged to turn to our advantage
today is the first time in history where the world is dominated by a peaceful elite: politicians, business people, investors, intellectuals and artists who generally see war and both evil and avoidable
they believe that if we conduct our affairs wisely, we can indeed avoid international         
5. states have lost too much of their independence and hence cannot          war if they wanted to
while citizens of non-                     countries in the world such as Israel, Italy, France, Japan feel as though they are living in an independent country which can act independently as their country has acted throughout history, the fact is that their governments are for the most part restricted and incapable of conducting full-scale war on their own without the approval from the international community, and in the case of attempting this, being met with a harsh                  from the international community
how can we characterize the modern era?
an era of war, slaughter, and oppression as we saw in the            part of the 20th century?
or a era of peace which has become common in the last few decades
our view of the past is distorted by the events of the last few years and decades
in order to satisfy both the optimists and the pessimists about what is awaiting us in the 21st century, we can say that the late modern era is characterized above all by extreme                 , history has not yet made up its mind about our destination

Spelling Corrections:

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Ideas and Concepts:

Five reasons we are currently experiencing an era of unprecedented international peace, via this morning's History of Humankind class:

""The peace that the world has been experiencing since 1945 and particularly since 1989 is different than the peace of any other period in history. Other periods of peace, such as the international peace that Europe enjoyed between 1871 and 1914, was defined by "the absence of war". However, even though there was an absence of war during these times, there was always "a plausible scenario for war", e.g. in late 19th century Europe, the likelihood that a border clash or colonial dispute would erupt into full-scale war between France and Germany, or between Spain and England was plausible. However, the international peace that most countries in the world enjoy today is characterized not only by the absence of war, but by "the unlikelihood of war". There are five reasons why war between most countries in the world today is unlikely:

1. THE PRICE OF WAR HAS DRAMATICALLY INCREASED:Mostly because of the invention and proliferation of nuclear weapons, the price of war and the damage it would cause to any country that would launch it, is so high and permanent, that countries who possess nuclear weapons see the launching of a full-scale war as a collective suicide that would be far too costly in the end compared to any gain they would get from waging it.

2. WAR HAS BECOME LESS PROFITABLE:Throughout history, kings and emperors and sultans could enrich themselves through conquering, looting, and annexing neighboring territories. The reason for this is that most wealth throughout history was material wealth such as cows, fields, buildings, gold mines, and slaves, and so through conquering and looting other countries, it was relatively easy and straightforward for empires to accrue wealth. Today, however, wealth in the world depends more and more on intellectual capital such as knowledge, intellectual property, and on complex social-economic structures such as banks and corporations, and therefore, it is very difficult for countries to conquer it, loot it, or annex it. For instance, consider the state of California which is one of the ten richest states in the world today. Originally built on the Gold Rush, which transformed it from a no man's land into an important economic and political center, today the gold mines in California play a very peripheral role in its economy. Much more important are Silicon Valley, where its Googles and Facebooks have their headquarters, and, of course, Hollywood, where the film and media industry resides. Try to imagine if the Chinese would decide to "invade California" in order to enrich themselves. The Chinese would send a fleet of ships across the Pacific Ocean and land soldiers onto the coast of California to invade cities and towns. Even if they managed to win the war, what would they gain? The answer is they would gain very little because you cannot conquer the wealth of Silicon Valley or Hollywood. You can conquer the physical valley and Hollywood hill itself, but the wealth of these areas does not primarily come from the land or its resources anymore. The wealth of Silicon Valley resides in the minds of Google engineers and Facebook developers, and these people, along with the actors and directors in Hollywood, would escape from California long before the Chinese could conquer it, and they would set up shop elsewhere and continue to produce wealth that the Chinese couldn't access. There are, however, some places in the world left with primarily old-fashioned wealth such as diamond mines and oil fields, and these are exactly the places where some of the only invasions of one country into another have taken place since 1945, e.g. the Iraqi invasion of Iran, and the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.

3. PEACE HAS BECOME MORE PROFITABLE: In traditional agricultural economies throughout history, long distance trade and foreign investment were side shows that had little economic benefit, which meant that peace with neighboring countries had little economic benefit other than avoiding the direct cost of war, but otherwise, international peace did not have any profits of its own. In contrast, in our modern, global capitalist economy, foreign trade and investments have become very important to a country's economy and in many cases has become necessary to support the standard of living that its citizens enjoy.

4. POLITICAL AND CULTURAL LEADERS GENERALLY SUPPORT PEACE:Throughout history, most leaders who governed countries saw war either as something good in itself or as a necessary evil which they were obliged to turn to their advantage. Our current era is the first time in history where the world is generally dominated by peaceful leaders:politicians, business people, investors, intellectuals and artists who generally see war as both evil and avoidable, and believe that if we conduct our affairs wisely, we can indeed avoid international wars altogether.

5. MANY STATES HAVE LOST TOO MUCH OF THEIR INDEPENDENCE TO WAGE WAR: While citizens of most non-superpower countries in the world such as Israel, Italy, Mexico, Nigeria, Korea or Japan feel as though they are living in an independent country which can act independently as their country has acted at other times in their history, the fact is that their governments are for the most part restricted and incapable of conducting any kind of large-scale war on their own without the approval from the international community, and in the case of attempting this, would be met with harsh sanctions or other economic and diplomatic punishments from the international community. As globalization progresses and as inter-dependencies of the world's cultures and economies increase and strengthen, even superpowers are losing their ability to act independently in order to wage war on another country.""
The Context of History and Our Extended Human Family
How Walking Upright Led to Better Social and Cooperative Skills
The Importance of Fire and Cooking
Why Did Other Human Species Become Extinct?
The Cognitive Revolution and the Beginning of Human History
The Language of Homo Sapiens
How Fictive Language Enabled Larger Social Groups
The Power of Imagined Realities
How the Ability to Tell Stories Enabled Humans to Cooperate in Massive Groups
The Cognitive Revolution and the Variety of Human Communities
Spiritual Beliefs of Early Humans
Politics and Warfare of Pre-Agricultural Societies
45,000 Years Ago: Human's Decimation of Australia's Large Mammals
14,000 BC: Human Migration to the Americas
Agriculture: The Good and the Bad
10,000 BC: Agricultural Revolution
The Origins of Agriculture
The Code of Hammurabi and Other Imagined Realities
Inter-Subjective Reality and Romantic Consumerism
The Human Brain's Outsourcing of Mathematics
Unjust and Imagined Hierarchies
Imagined Hierarchies in History
Culturally Defined Gender
Three Theories of Gender Domination
The Direction of Humankind: Global Unity
The Essence of Money
The History of Money
The Historical Definition of Empire
The Relationship between Science, European Imperialism and Capitalism
Science, Capitalism and European Imperialism
Columbus: Last Man of the Middle Ages, Vespucci: First Man of the Modern Age
European Empires, Science, and Capitalism
How Capitalism is Based on Trust in the Future
On the Interdependence of Science and Capitalism
How Capitalism Enabled Small European Countries to Explore and Conquer the World
The Relationship Between Capitalism, the Slave Trade, and Free Market Forces
Industrialization, Energy and Raw Materials
The Second Agricultural Revolution and its Effect on Animal Treatment
The Ethics of Capitalism and Consumerism
On Limitless Energy Resources and the Hegemony of Modern Time Schedules
State/Market vs. Family/Community
Humankind's Rigid and Violent Past, and Flexible and Peaceful Present
Reasons for Our Current Unprecedented Era of International Peace
Three Theories on the History of Happiness
Psychological and Biological Happiness
Measuring Human Happiness
The Future of Cyborgs and Robots
What Do We Want to Want?