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C O U R S E 
A Brief History of Humankind
Dr. Yuval Noah Harari, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
The Second Agricultural Revolution and its Effect on Animal Treatment
Notes taken on April 6, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
the industrial revolution was the result of combining cheap and abundant energy and raw materials
this was felt first in agriculture
when thinking of the industrial revolution, we usually think of cities and factories and terrible working conditions
machines such as tractors began to do the work which had been performed by humans and animals or not performed at all
artificial fertilizers
artificial insecticides
industrially produced hormones and medications for animals
refrigerators, airplanes, trucks
enabled transporting of produce and animals globally
animals were seen less as sentient creatures and more as machines for producing food
their bodies are becoming shaped by scientists in accordance with industrial needs
egg-laying hens have a natural need to move around, t groom other chicks and chickens
the egg industry often locks hens in 22 x 25 cm cages
hens receive enough food but are not able to engage in natural activities
cages are often so small the hens are unable to flap their wings
pigs are some of the most intelligent and inquisitive animals, much like the great apes
yet they are confined in small cages
not able to turn around
keeps in crates for four weeks after their birth
cows often live almost all of their years inside a small enclosure
machines bring them food
machines milk cows
treated as machines: they take in raw materials and produce the product milk
chicks are sorted by factory workers into those which are useful or not (male chicks and imperfect female chicks are not useful to the industry), those which not useful are often shredded, disposed of, or fed to other animals
this is not caused by hatred of animals
it is fueled by greed coupled by indifference
most of us don't think about or know where our meat and eggs come from or the way the animals were treated which produced this food
animal emotions evolved because they helped the species reproduce
in the wild, cows had to know how to form relations with other cows in order to reproduce
play is the way young mammals learn social behavior
calf stays near the mother since it is essential for the survival of the calf
today in modern farm factories, cows are separated from calves
the needs of the calf to play and bond with other cows and calves, and to be near its mother is ignored
from the perspective of the calf, it still feels a strong urge to bond with its mother and play with other calves
if these urges are not fulfilled the cow suffers psychologically
the tragedy of modern agriculture is that it cares for animals' physical needs but neglects their psychological needs
Harry Harlow, experiments 1950s
monkeys were raised by dummy mothers
one had a bottle so the monkey could suck and eat
the other was made from wood which made her resemble a real monkey but did not provide the infant monkey with any food
Harlow would assume that the infant would cling to the wire mother which gave them milk
but to their surprise, they infant monkeys preferred the mother that was softer
he suspected they did this because they were cold
so he put heaters in the wire mothers
but nevertheless the majority preferred the clothed mother
this indicated that the monkeys have emotional needs
these monkeys also grew up to be emotionally unstable
had difficult communicating
suffered from anxiety and aggression
this study also changed the view of human child psychology
in the 1940s and 1950s, it was believed children simply needed physical needs met
orphanages from that time separated children from each other and from adults, mainly because they feared disease
produced psychological traumas and problems
these studies indicated that not only monkeys but humans have psychological needs which can be met through social contact with other members of the species
industrial agriculture for the most part ignores these findings when it comes to raising animals such as cows and pigs
yet in the last 100 years modern agriculture has made an immense contribution to human productivity and food reserves
billions of farm animals live as part of a kind of mechanized assembly line
10 billion animals are slaughtered each year by industrial agriculture
in almost all previous human societies, peasants comprised 80-90% of the population, and was true until the earlier 20th century
industrial agriculture enabled a large percent of the population to move from farmers to other jobs
today only about 15% of the total U.S. workforce produce, process and sell the nation’s food and fiber, and the U.S. exports food to other countries
without the agricultural revolution of the last century, urban industrial revolution