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Notes on video lecture:
Hadrian's Pantheon
Notes taken by Edward Tanguay on March 11, 2014 (go to class or lectures)
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
, innovative, altar, slain, ten, impact, segmented, amateur, Agrippa, Pompeii, drum, pumpkins, hemispherical, basalt, concrete, large, forecourt, pantheos, Cassius, thickness
the word "pantheon" is derived from the Ancient Greek "                " meaning "all gods"
118-128: built by Hadrian
actually it was rebuilt by Hadrian, originally another Pantheon had been built by Marcus                during Augustus' reign
the Pantheon one of the greatest architectural masterpieces of all time
most architects would list the Pantheon in the top        of the greatest buildings ever built
not only because of the architecture itself, but the              it has had on Roman architecture but also on architecture in post-antique times
we don't know the name of the architect of the Pantheon
some think it might have been Hadrian himself, but he was probably too                of an architect to be the lead architect
Pantheon is at the same time:
complex and simple
traditional and                     
concrete constructive as well as the original vocabulary of Greek architecture
highly influenced by Trajan
just as the markets of Trajan combined a traditional forum and an innovative marketplace
ancient environment
rectangular                    with covered collonades on either side
possibly an arch
possibly an            to all the gods in front of the temple
all you would have seen was the porch
an attic behind the porch which screened the cylindrical          and dome from the viewer
porch is very traditional
looks like other Roman and Greek temples
high podium
but when you walked through the columns and the doors toward the interior, there was a                 
this is the essence of Hadrianic architecture
back side
shielded a cylindrical drum supported by a                            dome
three cornices
brick arches to help keep the concrete from settling
once the concrete dries, the brick arches are no longer needed, but are left there and have an aesthetic value
the dome is the perfect half of a complete sphere
predecessors are clearly the frigidaria at               
radiating apses as other structures, but done on a much grander scale, based on:
small scale frigidaria
Temple of Mercury
Domus Aurea of 8Nero                                                                                          
dome drum in the Domus Transitoria
dome was possible because of the increasingly sophisticated use of                 
decreased the                    of the walls from bottom to top
at based of dome: heavy thick             , but at top, mixed in a porous pumous which was much lighter
exchange between Hadrian and Trajan's architect Apollodorus
we think Hadrian designed the Temple of Venus and Roma himself
Hadrian went to Apollodorus to ask him advice on designs
this is how we know that Hadrian was an amateur architect
Dio               , Roman senator wrote a history of Rome, and mentioned an exchange between Apollodorous and Hadrian
Apollodorous said to Hadrian, "Go away and draw your                 , you know nothing about these problems."
when Hadrian became emperor, he remembered this, sent the plan of the Temple of Venus and Roma to show that a great building could be conceived without Apollodorous' help, and asked him if it was well designed, Apollodorous said that it should have had a high podium, and that that the figures were too            since if they wanted to stand up and leave temple, they would be unable to do so.
Hadrian then had Apollodorous           
this passage also tells us that Hadrian was making some drawings of "pumpkin domes" or                    domes
we don't have a pumpkin dome at the Pantheon, but we do have them at Hadrian's villa


basalt, n. hard, dense, dark volcanic rock often having a glassy appearance  "At the base of dome in the Pantheon they mixed into the concrete a thick, heavy basalt, but as they moved toward the top, they mixed in a porous pumous which was much lighter."
cella, n. an inner room or sanctuary of an ancient Greek or Roman temple, in which the statue of the god was situated  "It was designed around a series of courtyards leading to a cella."


######################### (70-120 AD)
Greek architect in Rome, designed Trajan's Forum and Column
  • from Damascus, Roman Syria
  • favorite of Trajan
  • also engineer, designer and sculptor
  • on the accession of Hadrian, whom he had offended by ridiculing his performances as architect and artist, Apollodorus was banished and, shortly afterwards, being charged with imaginary crimes, put to death

Spelling Corrections:

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Temple of Portunus in Rome and Temple of Hercules in Cori
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The Flavian Amphitheater a.k.a. the Roman Colosseum
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Early History of Pompeii