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C O U R S E 
Roman Architecture
Diana Kleiner, Yale University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Hadrian's Pantheon
Notes taken on March 11, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
the word "pantheon" is derived from the Ancient Greek "pantheos" meaning "all gods"
118-128: built by Hadrian
actually it was rebuilt by Hadrian, originally another Pantheon had been built by Marcus Agrippa during Augustus' reign
the Pantheon one of the greatest architectural masterpieces of all time
most architects would list the Pantheon in the top ten of the greatest buildings ever built
not only because of the architecture itself, but the impact it has had on Roman architecture but also on architecture in post-antique times
we don't know the name of the architect of the Pantheon
some think it might have been Hadrian himself, but he was probably too amateur of an architect to be the lead architect
Pantheon is at the same time:
complex and simple
traditional and innovative
concrete constructive as well as the original vocabulary of Greek architecture
highly influenced by Trajan
just as the markets of Trajan combined a traditional forum and an innovative marketplace
ancient environment
rectangular forecourt with covered collonades on either side
possibly an arch
possibly an altar to all the gods in front of the temple
all you would have seen was the porch
an attic behind the porch which screened the cylindrical drum and dome from the viewer
porch is very traditional
looks like other Roman and Greek temples
high podium
but when you walked through the columns and the doors toward the interior, there was a surprise
this is the essence of Hadrianic architecture
back side
shielded a cylindrical drum supported by a hemispherical dome
three cornices
brick arches to help keep the concrete from settling
once the concrete dries, the brick arches are no longer needed, but are left there and have an aesthetic value
the dome is the perfect half of a complete sphere
predecessors are clearly the frigidaria at Pompeii
radiating apses as other structures, but done on a much grander scale, based on:
small scale frigidaria
Temple of Mercury
Domus Aurea of 8Nero
dome drum in the Domus Transitoria
dome was possible because of the increasingly sophisticated use of concrete
decreased the thickness of the walls from bottom to top
at based of dome: heavy thick basalt, but at top, mixed in a porous pumous which was much lighter
exchange between Hadrian and Trajan's architect Apollodorus
we think Hadrian designed the Temple of Venus and Roma himself
Hadrian went to Apollodorus to ask him advice on designs
this is how we know that Hadrian was an amateur architect
Dio Cassius, Roman senator wrote a history of Rome, and mentioned an exchange between Apollodorous and Hadrian
Apollodorous said to Hadrian, "Go away and draw your pumpkins, you know nothing about these problems."
when Hadrian became emperor, he remembered this, sent the plan of the Temple of Venus and Roma to show that a great building could be conceived without Apollodorous' help, and asked him if it was well designed, Apollodorous said that it should have had a high podium, and that that the figures were too large since if they wanted to stand up and leave temple, they would be unable to do so.
Hadrian then had Apollodorous slain
this passage also tells us that Hadrian was making some drawings of "pumpkin domes" or segmented domes
we don't have a pumpkin dome at the Pantheon, but we do have them at Hadrian's villa