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Notes on video lecture:
Opus Caementicum and Opus Incertum
Notes taken by Edward Tanguay on January 23, 2014 (go to class or lectures)
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
column, moisture, pozzolana, architecture, strong, weights, Nerva, Portunus, wood, Pantheon, Ionic, porch, transform, molds, mortar, Tivoli, attractive, Etruscan
concrete (Opus Caementicum [kigh-MENT-tee-kum]) changed the concept of                          for the Romans
a shift from tradition architecture to innovative
tradition Roman architecture
Temple of                 
derivative that looked back at Greek and                  religious architecture
tall podium
single staircase
Greek elements
made of stone
           order on columns
concrete was used already in the Temple of Portunus (1 BC), but only in the podium, you can't see it
can sustain great               
placed in the podium for support
Romans at this time begin to see that concrete has an ability to                    Roman architecture
Roman concrete was different than today's concrete
composite of various natural elements that becomes a mass when mixed with water, and hardens into a very              substance, much harder than any of its ingredients on its own
stone rubble
lime, sand, and                   , a volcanic substance
used in the early 2nd century BC
concrete is not cut or quarried, it is cast into           
can be cast in any shape, at least any shape that a carpenter can build with         
freed the Roman architect from the confines of a rectilinear architecture inherited from the Etruscans and the Greeks
greatest concrete structure:                 
we can compare an Etruscan tomb which attempted to do the same thing, using stone
wasn't terribly successful, even had to put a stone              in the middle for support
two problems with concrete
has to be protected from                 
is less                      than stone
solved these two problems in the same way
when still wet, attached stone to it
large blocks or small rocks pressed into the concrete
Temple of Vesta at             
Opus incertum (uncertain masterwork) [in-KAIR-tum] protected the concrete with small stones
Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia at Palestrina
Palestrina is south of Tivoli
used a stone-facing Opus incertum
used often in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC
over time the choice of facing changed
under the Roman emperor           , there was a revolution in Roman architecture
new facing material: brick
the attractiveness of brick


protected the concrete with small stones
Opus incertum [in-KAIR-tum]
the use of concrete in Roman architecture
Opus Caementicum
a volcanic substance used in architecture

Ideas and Concepts:

Learned in tonight's Roman Architecture class: "There was one element that was responsible for freeing the Romans from the confines of a multi-hundred year architectural tradition of rectilinear forms which they had inherited from the Etruscans and the Greeks. The Romans called this element Opus Caementicum, otherwise known as concrete. And the greatest concrete structure ever built by the Romans was the Pantheon."
Romulus Founds Rome
The Temple of Jupiter OMC
The Servian Wall of Rome
Temple of Portunus in Rome and Temple of Hercules in Cori
The Increasing Greekification of Roman Temple Building
Opus Caementicum and Opus Incertum
Porticus Aemilia
Temple of Jupiter Anxur at Terracina
Tabularium and Theater of Marcellus
Bathing, Entertainment, and Housing in Roman Cities
Roman Tombs, Aqueducts and the Lasting Impact of Roman Architecture
Julius Caesar's Vision to Make Rome the Architectural Equal of Alexandria
Augustus and Luna Marble
The Forum of Augustus and the Temple of Mars
Ara Pacis Augustae
The Meier Museum and the Jewel of the Lungotevere
Tiberius' Villa Jovis on Capri
Caligula, Lighter Concrete, and the Underground Basilica
The Significance of Nero's Octagonal Room on Roman Architecture
Hadrian's Pantheon
The Flavian Amphitheater a.k.a. the Roman Colosseum
The Temple of Venus and Roma
The Arch of Titus
The 79 AD Ruins of Herculaneum
Early History of Pompeii