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Notes on video lecture:
Judahite Communities in Babylon
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
daily, Cuneiform, daughters, Mesopotamia, exciting, separately, clans, Weidner, Philistines, market, million, mix, Babylon, dialects, Kings, Waerzeggers, 597, villages, Judenstadt, dregs, Sabbath, foreigners, rations, sanctuaries, urban, Jerusalem, Egypt, unloading, tax, religion, Davidic, Uruk, Jehoiachin, Solomon, three, captivity, Tigris, blinded, Yahweh, Judah, networking, estates
587 BC: Siege of                   
Nebuchadnezzar II
culminated in the destruction of the city
after Siege of       , Nebuchadnezzar installed Zedekiah as tributary king of Judah at the age of twenty-one
revolted against               , and entered into an alliance with Pharaoh Hophra, king of Egypt
Nebuchadnezzar responded by invading           
siege lasted 30 months
"every worst woe befell the city, which drank the cup of God's fury to the           "
after seeing his sons killed, Zedekiah was               , bound, and taken captive to Babylon, where he remained a prisoner until his death
Babylonian general Nebuzaraddan was sent to complete its destruction
Jerusalem was plundered and               's Temple was destroyed
most of the elite were taken into                    in Babylon
Gedaliah was assassinated two months later, and the population that had remained and those who had returned then fled to            for safety
after the siege: Judahite Communities in                       
we have no large body of evidence like the archive of Elephantine that describes            life
Ran Zadok (Tel Aviv University)
"The                    Text"
database of cuneiform texts that mention any Judahites or Israelis
Laurie Pearce (Berkeley)
Cornelia Wunsch (Leipzig)
Kathleen Abraham (Tel Aviv)
Caroline                        (Leiden)
most of the research is being done on cuneiform documents and using them to try to reconstruct life of exiled Judahites in the Mesopotamian region around Babylon
kinds of texts
relate to King                      of Judah
a king of Judah who was dethroned by the King of Babylon in the 6th century BC and was taken into captivity
in these texts he is presented as receiving                from the royal palace
also know of him from the end of the Book of           
was probably understood to be the heir to the                throne
Sippar Texts
mention Judahite individuals in a              town
Murasha Archive
a firm whose task was the management of royal fiefs and               
land leasing
texts from         , Nippur, Marad, and Isin
suggest that some Judean individuals lived among Babylonians not only in rural but also in an            contexts
Al Yahudu Texts
the most                  body of texts
translated as "Judahville" or "Jew Town" or in German "                    "
we have only 5% published so far
only the tip of the iceberg
it remains to be seen what new information we can get from these texts
scholarly work on                      e.g. by Caroline Waerzeggers
how it can be shown that there was            degrees of separation between rural Judahite and a high-ranking priestly official
Judahites were settled in regions which the palace wanted to develop
to increase the agricultural production
placed on lands on the              owned by the crown
their job it to develop these lands and pay their taxes
Judahites resides in new and old                  with foreigners
they are not being settled alone, they are not separated from others
they have contact with                     
many of these foreigners are Phoenicians and                       
spoke                  which were similar to each other
the problems of oral communication became less acute as the next generation of children were raised
involved in daily affairs
working for business firms, doing tax collection
social organization and                 
organized in           
seem to be clan divisions, e.g. certain individuals do business with some clans but not other clans
none of the documents were issued on a Saturday or high holiday
seems to point to their keeping the                holy
this is different to the Elephantine records where they were                    ships on Saturday
temple and sanctuaries
the Elephantine records refer to a temple to Anat-Yahu
Anat-Yahu: either the wife, sacred consort of             , or as a hypostatized aspect of Yahweh
there is no reference to a temple in the Babylonian documents
although it's probable that they have some sort of                        in each of their villages
in order to practice religious life, they needed something, since they were not part of the temples in the Babylonian cities
they continued to live                      for generations
near a                Judahites
into the Roman times
a question is why the small population at the beginning is not merging with the Babylonian population society
the Babylonian elites did not want to        with others
they may have taken                    of other nationalities for their own sons
but they would never give their own daughters to other nationalities
when these communities return to Judah, they continue this tradition of remaining separate


synchretism, n. the combining of different, often contradictory beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought, the merger and analogizing of several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, thus asserting an underlying unity and allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths  "The Nabonidus Cylinder of Sippar is a long text in which Nabonidus describes how Nabonidus repaired three temples: the sanctuary of the moon god Sin, the sanctuary of the warrior goddess Anunitu in Sippar, and the temple of Šamaš in Sippar, a significant text in that it offers a full syncretism of Sin (moon god), Marduk (patron deity of Babylon), and Nabu (god of wisdom and writing)."
hypostasize, v. to treat or represent something abstract as a concrete reality  "Anat-Yahu was represented as either the wife or sacred consort of Yahweh, or as a hypostatized aspect of Yahweh."
The Merneptah Stele: The Oldest Reference to Israel
Canaan as Outback between Mesopotamia and Egypt Civilization Centers
The Three Centers of Early Jewish History
The Amarna Letters and Egypt's Presence in Canaan During the New Kingdom
The End of Egyptian Imperial Control
Maps of Historical Biblical Regions
Interview with Bill Deaver
Israel, Judah, and the Campaign of Shishak
The Omride Dynasty
725 BC: The Fall of Israel to Assyria
The Kingdom of Judah and Sennacherib
The Fall of Judah
The History of Israel According to Genesis and Exodus
Archaeological Theories on the History of Israel
The Rise of the Iron Age Kingdoms
Bronze Age vs. Iron Age Material Culture
History of the Central Highland States
Judah After the Babylonian Conquest
Factors Leading to the Depopulation Of Israel
The Elephantine Papyri
Judahite Communities in Babylon
Ezra-Nehemiah and Haggai on Temple Rebuilding
The Biblical Project
From the Bible to the Sumerian King List
Genesis Chapter 26: Isaac, Abimelek and Rebekah
The Biblical Authors' Portrayal of Women and Heroism
The Bible's Treatment of Heroic Death
Portrayal of Death in the Bible