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Notes on video lecture:
Archaeological Theories on the History of Israel
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
infiltration, under, unified, Canaan, social, entire, coalesced, egalitarian, ecological, few, Egypt, destroyed, conservative, Biblical, battles, Nuzi, necessarily, animal, Jacob, changes, 2000, History, Judges, skeptical, Merneptah, Patriarchs, Judah, gradual, small, urban, Genesis, Jordan, archeologists
John Bright
A                of Israel (1959)
Age of the                     
Exodus and Conquest
Period of the             
United Monarchy of Saul, David and Solomon
Divided Monarchies of Israel and           
Exile, Return, Restoration
a                          history which for the most part replicates the Biblical story
since the 80s and 90s most historians are                    about the historicity of the first two periods
the age of the patriarchs
the exodus/conquest period
many allow and exodus from Egypt on a            scale
but it is doubtful that
this group comprised the              people of Israel
that this group descended directly from Abraham, Isaac, and           
Ephraim Speiser (1902-1965)
a group of scholars thought they could prove the historicity of                by showing how various institutions and practices described in these texts appear in documents found in a city in Northern Iraq called         
documents date from 1450-1350
long after the Biblical patriarchs (ca.         )
leading paradigm and theories with which                            and historians work when reconstructing the origins of ancient history
for many years, there were two models:
1. peaceful                         
Albrecht Alt
Martin Noth
Yohanan Aharoni (1919-1976)
Israelites entered              as semi-nomads
                   gradually into a united people
originated somewhere in the Transjordan, today Jordan
2. conquest
conservative reaction to the peaceful infiltration model
William Foxwell Albright (1891-1971)
Yigael Yadin (1917-1984)
Israel was already a                people before they entered Canaan by military force and conquest
takes its point of departure from the                  accounts
very        scholars would defend this view today
the main reason is that the various layers which Albright and Yadin all date from very different periods
peaceful view has persisted in modern scholarship but has been subjected to               
1.              revolution model
Israelites were originally an           -privileged and oppressed class of Canaanites
rose up in rebellion
abandoned the            centers
moved outside urban areas in hills
where they joined with a small group which had recently made an exodus from bondage in           
established an                        society
George Mendenhall
Norman Gottwald
2. sedentary / nomadic / sedentary
Israel Finkelstein
Shlomo Bunimovitz
the population which became Israel were local              herders who gradually made a transition from being nomads to sedentary land owners
began as sedentary Canaanites, became nomads in the 16th century BC when Canaan was                   
by 1200 BC when Israel starts to emerge as a people, they begin a sedentary existence again
most scholars think of Israel's origins as a                process of identity formation
elicited by social, political and                      factors
may have originated in Canaan proper
or they may have migrated from the east of the             
1200 BCE, the                    Stele attests to the existence of a people called Israel
doesn't contain any information about how Israel was constituted
no mention of how large the group was
or even if Merneptah's armies had encountered them firsthand
there is also reason that these inscriptions would be unreliable, e.g. for kings to boast of                they never won and peoples they never conquered
the maintenance of a social organization does not necessarily imply any sort of cultural continuity
just because there is one group called Israel in one period and another group called Israel in another period, doesn't                        imply tight, cultural connection between the two

Spelling Corrections:

The Merneptah Stele: The Oldest Reference to Israel
Canaan as Outback between Mesopotamia and Egypt Civilization Centers
The Three Centers of Early Jewish History
The Amarna Letters and Egypt's Presence in Canaan During the New Kingdom
The End of Egyptian Imperial Control
Maps of Historical Biblical Regions
Interview with Bill Deaver
Israel, Judah, and the Campaign of Shishak
The Omride Dynasty
725 BC: The Fall of Israel to Assyria
The Kingdom of Judah and Sennacherib
The Fall of Judah
The History of Israel According to Genesis and Exodus
Archaeological Theories on the History of Israel
The Rise of the Iron Age Kingdoms
Bronze Age vs. Iron Age Material Culture
History of the Central Highland States
Judah After the Babylonian Conquest
Factors Leading to the Depopulation Of Israel
The Elephantine Papyri
Judahite Communities in Babylon
Ezra-Nehemiah and Haggai on Temple Rebuilding
The Biblical Project
From the Bible to the Sumerian King List
Genesis Chapter 26: Isaac, Abimelek and Rebekah
The Biblical Authors' Portrayal of Women and Heroism
The Bible's Treatment of Heroic Death
Portrayal of Death in the Bible