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Notes on video lecture:
The First Persian War and the Battle of Marathon
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Ionian, panic, Cleomenes, ambassadors, Lydia, dreams, long, corslet, Herodotus, Attica, Bahiston, crushed, taxes, Hippias, Achaemenid, odds, Athens, Magi, financial, psychoanalytic, India, Hoplite, Thebes, Peisistratos, mother, destroy, Miletus, Persia, bureaucracy, Chalcis, outdo, conquests, 6000, angry, Cleisthenes, over, Pheidippides, vassal, troops, Zoroastrianism, treasure
Cyrus II of              [SIGH-rus] (576–530 BC)
conquered Croesus [KREE-sus] and took over           
530 BC killed in battle
         {MAY-jigh] took over for a short time
6th century BC followers of                             
Darius I [dah-RIGH-us] 550-486 BC
ruled for          time: 522-486 BC
modern day Iran
                 inscription [bah-HIS-ston]
"the place of god"
shows the King Darius
text details his                   
presided over a massive empire
From the Thracian coast to western part of           
enormous among of                 
became king
                   wrote extensively of him
was going to come into conflict with the Greeks
a very great size difference
508 BC: just established a democracy under                       
King                    [clee-OH-men-eez] of Sparta had been forced to withdraw
506 BC: wanted to reassert his influence in             
others had designs of moving into Athens as well
Boeotia [bee-OH-shah] centered around             
Euboea [yoo-BEE-ah] (island) centered around               
they had heard of political turmoil going on there
internal dissension made Spartans turn back
Athenians created                armies which drove back the Boeotians and others
young democracy proved itself
Athens made deal to get                    help from Persian Satrap [SAY-trap]
gave Persians earth and water
cultural misunderstanding
Persia took this as a sign that the Greeks were giving themselves over as subjects
             cities had been brought under Persian control
had to start to pay           
Persians had installed their own              governments there
499 BC Ionian revolts
tyrant of the city of               
a key player during the early years of the Ionian revolt against the Persian                      Empire [ah-KEE-men-eed]
goes to Sparta and asks to help
they say to no
goes to Athens
they agree to help
because                was in Persia and Athens feared him returning
fleet of 20 ships
with other ships from Eretria [air-RHET-ree-ah]
burn Croesus' ancient capital of Sardis
Persians had felt that their alliance with Athens had been betrayed
King Darius was furious
Persia got prepared for war
494 BC the Ionian revolt was               
city of Miletus was sacked and burned
as revenge for the destruction of Sardis
but Darius also wanted to punish the Athenians directly
Athenians and Spartans kill the Persian                        who come to ask for earth and water as a way to show loyalty
against protocol
ambassadors usually are protected in order to enable negotiations
491 BC Persians invade
490 BC make it to the mainland
first target is Eretria [ah-REE-tree-ah]
they                it
just off the coast of             
reaction in Athens was of stunned           
Hippias was among the Persian forces
Herodotus tells story about Hippias
has a dream that he made love to his             
believes this means he will rule in Athens
the Oedipal dream can be understood as significant because Marathon had been chosen by Hippias' father,                         , for a landing which opened the way for a victorious march on Athens and the establishment of tyranny
Herodotos intended to give a                              explanation of why Hippias, who obviously knew the terrain to perfection, made a bad choice in advising the Persians
Hippias wanted to do as well as his father, but his wish took the character of an Oedipal wish to            the father and possess the mother, with subsequent guilt and self-defeat
Herodotus puts worth on              in his Histories in this way
490 BC: Battle of Marathon
Athenians mount a Hoplite defense
go out from the city to meet Persian
Miltiedes (550 – 489 BCE) [mil-TIGH-i-deez]
member of a great, old family
put his best              not on the front line
but on side where they can attack the Persian flanks
Greeks: 192
Persians: over          Persians
this was a win against all          for the Greeks
                         sent as messenger back to Athens
reasons Greeks won
1. Hoplite armor was better
Persian armor tended to be a linen               
a shield made out of wicker
shown in art on pottery
depictions of Greeks vs. Persians
showing hoplite tactics
2. Greeks fought in tighter positions
3. Greeks were also fighting for the liberty of their homeland
a fight for freedom against despotism
Marathon was an ideological battle
John Stuart Mill
"As an event in English history, the Battle of Marathon is more important than the Battle of Hastings."
has an unusual status in world battles
but at Marathon, the Persians had been beat and were           
the Persian wars were by no means         


corslet, n. a piece of defensive armor covering the body  "In Ancient Greek armies, the hoplite wore a bronze corslet or known as the thorax to protect his upper body."


######################### (550-489 BC)
Known for his role in the Battle of Marathon, as well as for his tragic downfall afterwards
  • was elected to serve as one of the ten generals for the Battle of Marathon
  • credited with devising the tactics that defeated the Persians in the Battle of Marathon
  • Miltiades was firm in insisting that the Persians be fought immediately, as a siege of Athens would have led to its destruction
  • Miltiades had his men march to the end of the Persian archer range, called the "beaten zone", then break out in a run straight at the Persian army, which was decisive in defeating the Persians
  • in 489 BCE, Miltiades led an Athenian expedition of seventy ships against the Greek-inhabited islands that were deemed to have supported the Persians
  • attack Paros but failed to take it
  • suffered a grievous leg wound during the campaign and became incapacitated
  • his failure prompted an outcry on his return to Athens, enabling his political rivals to exploit his fall from grace
  • charged with treason, he was sentenced to death, but sent to prison
  • he was sent to prison where he died, probably of gangrene from his wound

Spelling Corrections:

Hesiod's Creation Myth: Theogony
The Spartan Way of Life
600 BC Tyrants and Sages: Cypselus and Periander
800-700 BC: Athens Before Solon
Solon Against Political, Economic, and Moral Decline
Peisistratos: Tyranny and Civic Identity
The End of Athenian Tyranny and the Democratic Revolution
508 BC: The Democratic Reforms of Cleisthenes
Herodotus and The Histories
The First Persian War and the Battle of Marathon
Themistocles, Silver, and Greek Naval Policy
Xerxes and the Second Invasion of Greece
The Delian League
From Delian League to Athenian Empire
Pericles: Aristocrat, Orator and Democratic Citizen
Sophocles' Antigone: Tragedy and Athenian Civic Life