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Notes on video lecture:
From Delian League to Athenian Empire
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
gold, archaic, Sparta, weights, beholden, cash, Corinthians, bastion, Thucydides, significant, Thasos, advantage, islands, Thebes, Eurymedon, first, Pericles, Archilochus, legal, meticulous, Persia, Ephialtes, helots, Delos, alarm, Delian, Athens, general, uprising, slave, ostracized, cleruchy, Naxos
allies requested that              take over the leadership of the voluntary confederation the Delian League
main goals of the              League
1. defense against             
2. equality and autonomy for all members
3. annual contributions from each member-state
Athens was            among equals
had the conditions set up to come to dominate
Athenian ability to build and man these ships reflects the democratic presence of free labor
           labor, not slave labor
Athens had many men who were able and willing to do this kind of work
gave them an                    over other states
Athens between Persian War and Peloponnesian War with             
almost all states are either                or on the coast
year-round presence of the fleet was a new condition for warfare
what happens next is difficult to disentangle
                    : The Peloponnesian War
a compressed account of what happened between Persian and Peloponnesian wars
leaves out many important issues
literary evidence
the Athenian tragedians
later writers
personable, skillful Athenian               
Persians had been preparing to put together a new attacking force
469-466 Cimon leads a fleet to                   , south coast of Turkey
wins a smashing victory
467 BC island of            decided to leave the league
perhaps thought the Persian threat was not                        anymore
had contributed ships rather than money
the Athenians surround Naxos with league ships
annual contributions were changed from ships to         
in North Aegean, island of             
                       described with such distaste
"bristling like a donkey's back, what an ugly island"
465 BC Athenians get into quarrel into island fo Thasos regarding access to some rich          mines on the mainland
a kind of private quarrel, heavy handed by Athens
Thasos appeals to Sparta for help
Spartans had been watching Athenian military growth and movements with           
Spartans seemed to help
464 BC huge earthquake in Sparta
used disruption of earthquake to fight for their freedom
ironically, the Spartan asked the Athenians to come help them against the                 
Cimon sent help to Sparta as a former ally of Athens
troop of 4000 hoplites sent to help Sparta, however, was sent home
Sparta perhaps worried about Athenian democratic proclivities
Cimon forced to go back, was an insult to him
462 BC Pericles
engineered a reform with                    [Ἐφιάλτης]
early leader of the democratic movement
oversaw reforms that diminished the power of the Areopagus, a traditional                of conservatism
461 BC Cimon                     
he had been pro Sparta
free Delian league becomes a collection of Athenian-dominated, tribute-paying allies
Athenian tribute lists
mid 450s: Athenians moved the treasure from            to Athens
kept                      records of how much each state paid each year
allows us to tract relations within the league
Athens tended to support democratic factions
exercised legal control
trials had to be held in Athens even if they involved citizens from a league state
economic control
controlled trade with their navy
forced league states to use Athenian coins,               , and measures
psychologically and economically significant
established colonies, or                 
not same as colonies in                age of Greece
meant to be Athenian outposts constantly in contact with and                  to the mother city
political,            and economic control
major events during this era
478 BC: foundation of Delian League
469-466 BC: Battle of Eurymedon, Cimon victor
467 BC: attempt at secession by Naxos
465 BC: Athens vs. Thasos
464 BC: Spartan earthquake and helot revolt
462 BC: reform of the Areopagus
461 BC: Ostracismof Cimon
460-445 BC: First Peloponnesian War
460 BC: Athenians allied with the state of Megara
strategically very important
                       were outraged
formed alliances with Peloponnesian states
no major battles
a series of bloody and inconclusive skirmishes
Athenian domination over the League was getting more complete
resistance to Athenian domination by Corinth and              mounting
emerged in Athens one of the most powerful leaders:                 


cleruchy, n. [κληρουχία] a specialized type of colony established by Athens in Classical Greece (510-323 BC). Normally, Greek colonies were politically independent, they would have a special relationship with the mother city the metropolis, but would otherwise be independent entities. Cleruchies were significantly different: the settlers or cleruchs would retain their Athenian citizenship and the community remained a political dependency of Athens. Cleruchies were established as a means of exporting excess and generally impoverished populations to conveniently distant localities. Under the cleruchy arrangement, the participating citizen received a plot of agricultural land, hence a means to earn his livelihood. This elevated the citizen to the property class of zeugitai (those whose property or estate could produce 200 bushels of wet or dry goods per year). The cleruch would be obliged to defend his colony by serving it as a hoplite. This arrangement benefited Athens in three principal ways: (1) reduced population pressure in Athens, (2) increased Athenian military power, (3) increased the economic power of Athens, as it enabled more of its citizens to become property holders. Some early known cleruchies were nearer to Athens such as Salamis and Chalcis, but many others created during the Second Athenian Empire (378–355 BC) were farther away such as Samos Island near present-day Turkey.  "During Classical Greece, the Athenians established colonies, not the kind of colonies as were common back in Archaic Greece but these were called Cleruchies, outposts constantly in contact with and beholden to the mother city."

Ideas and Concepts:

The myth of the Aloadae [Ἀλωάδαι] via this morning's Ancient Greek History class: "Otus [Ὦτος] and Ephialtes [Ἐφιάλτης] were two strong and aggressive giants, sons of Poseidon and Iphimedia [Ἰφιμέδεια], who also happened to be the wife of Aloeus [Ἀλωεύς] who gave the two giants their patronym. These brothers wanted to storm Mt. Olympus and gain the goddesses Artemis for Otus and Hera for Ephialtes. They managed to kidnap Ares and hold him in a bronze jar. He was only released when Artemis offered herself to Otus. This made Ephialtes envious and the pair fought. Artemis changed herself into a doe and jumped between them. The Aloadae, not wanting her to get away, threw their spears and simultaneously killed each other."
Located during this morning's Ancient Greek History class: "I finally located Areopagus rock, just west of the Acropolis, Areopagus rock being the place where Apostle Paul apparently gave what is known as his Areopagus sermon in which he proclaimed that there is only one God and all other gods do not exist, thus launching humankind into centuries of using their monotheistic religions to express intolerance for each other, or as Paul put it 'As I walked around and looked carefully at your objects of worship, I even found an altar with this inscription:TO AN UNKNOWN GOD. So you are ignorant of the very thing you worship, and this is what I am going to proclaim to you.' Well, I have something to proclaim to Paul, and that is Article 18 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a copy of which I have put on my pile of things to take to Athens, and which I am going to read on the same spot which Apostle Paul stood, thus effectively overriding his century-long disrespect of other religions, with these much wiser words:'Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.'"
Hesiod's Creation Myth: Theogony
The Spartan Way of Life
600 BC Tyrants and Sages: Cypselus and Periander
800-700 BC: Athens Before Solon
Solon Against Political, Economic, and Moral Decline
Peisistratos: Tyranny and Civic Identity
The End of Athenian Tyranny and the Democratic Revolution
508 BC: The Democratic Reforms of Cleisthenes
Herodotus and The Histories
The First Persian War and the Battle of Marathon
Themistocles, Silver, and Greek Naval Policy
Xerxes and the Second Invasion of Greece
The Delian League
From Delian League to Athenian Empire
Pericles: Aristocrat, Orator and Democratic Citizen
Sophocles' Antigone: Tragedy and Athenian Civic Life