Lectures Watched
Since January 1, 2014
Hundreds of free, self-paced university courses available:
my recommendations here
Peruse my collection of 275
influential people of the past.
View My Class Notes via:
Receive My Class Notes via E-Mail:


Contact Me via E-Mail:
edward [at] tanguay.info
Notes on video lecture:
Xerxes and the Second Invasion of Greece
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
straits, escape, traditional, hegemony, games, kill, Hellespont, defeat, Mardonius, Marathon, Corinth, invade, enough, enormous, mountain, wooden, Thermopylae, annihilated, die, repents, boundry, psychological, Demaratus, incomprehension, Darius, careful, polis, despair, armada, uncle, flogs, Salamis, ships, Herodotus
Xerxes I (519–465 BC)
486 BC: took over Persia on the death of his father,             
capital in Perseopolis
determine to get revenge on the Greeks for the              that they inflicted on his father's troops
begins his rule with                  power
                   gives up a remarkable psychological portrait of the young king
in a debate as to what he should do
encouraged King Xerxes I, Darius' successor, to              Greece
"strike back, get glory, live up to Persian standards"
Artabanus, Xerxes'            and advisor
not so fast
there is so much that could go wrong
we have much to lose and little to gain
we should just consolidate our powers
flies into a range
says to Artabanus, if he weren't his uncle he would kill him
then               , says he's sorry, he's a hot head and young man
has a dream
figure appears and says to attack the Greeks
second dream
figure comes back again and says that he should not ignore his advice to attack the Greeks
a combination of advanced thinking and                        thinking
characterizes so much of this era
uncle says that dreams are just representations of what you've been thinking about during the day
a modern                            theory
Artabanus then wears Xerxes bed clothes, sleeps in his bed, same dream figure comes and threatens him with burning hot irons
Artabanus then changes his mind, tells Xerxes that he should attack Greece
but be                how you do it
Herodotean pattern
having just             
breaking some kind of               
by boundry of the bedroom wall for Gyges [Γύγης] and Candaules [Κανδαύλης]
the river Halys for King Croesus [Κροῖσος]
landing at                  for King Darius's army
Xerxes decides to go all out
has a bridge built over the                     
a storm comes up and breaks it
he becomes so angry, he            and has chains thrown into the Hellspont waters, and decapitated the overseers
bridge is finally built
had a large              accompanying them on the seaside
a storm occurs of the island of Euboea
Persian land army is making good progress
Athens is very concerned about the large, advancing army
there was the idea to make a wall near                and move everyone down to the Peloponnese
there are still remanents of the beginnings of this wall
instead, the Spartans send a force up
make their stand at the Battle of Thermopylae
traveling with the Persians is a Spartan king in exile,                   
Xerxes sends a spy out to see what the Spartans are doing
the spy reports that the Spartans playing           , exercises, combing out their long hair
Demaratus warns him that this is how Spartans behave when they are preparing to       
highlighting the cultural                                that Herodotus is so interested in
480 BC: Battle of                       
Spartans have blocked narrow pass
here we see again: quality vs. quantity
Spartans hold off wave after wave of Persian attacks
finally a Greek traitor leads the Persians around on a                  pass to the other side
Spartans are caught from behind
Spartans are                        down to the last man
epitaph: "Traveler, you who pass by, go tell the Spartans that, faithful to the end, here we lie"
Thermopylae has become a great battle in the imagination of the West
the evacuation of Attica
Persians continue progress down into Greece
the              walls prophecy
Delphi says that the Athenians should trust their wooden walls
Themistocles interprets it correctly, meaning: "our           "
a decree that ordered the Athenians to evacuate
unclear if this was planned or a panic
Persians enter Athens,          the few who remained there, and sacked and burned the city
Spartan King Leonidas had died at Thermopylae
480 BC: The Battle of               
Themistocles sends message to Persians: Greeks are about to escape, you should cut them off
thus lures the Persians to fight in the                near the island of Salamis
the battle proceded exactly as the Greek command expected
smaller, faster Greek ships punch apart the Persian fleet
Xerxes watched in               
the Greek victory here sealed the Persians fate
Tthemistocles lets Xerxes             
Persian army stays in Greece
under command of                   
479 BC: Battle of Plataea
north of Athens
Greeks win
the Persian military threat was now effectively ended
Sparta and Athens have risen to a position of                 
now these two were first among equals in the Greek           

Spelling Corrections:


Ideas and Concepts:

Greek word of the day via this morning's Ancient Greek History class: "Kairos [καιρός] in classical rhetoric meant "a passing instant when an opening appears which must be driven through with force if success is to be achieved". Kairos was central to the Sophists, who stressed the rhetor's ability to adapt to and take advantage of changing, contingent circumstances. Isocrates, for instance, uses the concept of kairos in indicating that educated people are able to manage well the circumstances which they encounter day by day, and who possess a judgment which is accurate in meeting occasions as they arise and rarely miss the expedient course of action."
Hesiod's Creation Myth: Theogony
The Spartan Way of Life
600 BC Tyrants and Sages: Cypselus and Periander
800-700 BC: Athens Before Solon
Solon Against Political, Economic, and Moral Decline
Peisistratos: Tyranny and Civic Identity
The End of Athenian Tyranny and the Democratic Revolution
508 BC: The Democratic Reforms of Cleisthenes
Herodotus and The Histories
The First Persian War and the Battle of Marathon
Themistocles, Silver, and Greek Naval Policy
Xerxes and the Second Invasion of Greece
The Delian League
From Delian League to Athenian Empire
Pericles: Aristocrat, Orator and Democratic Citizen
Sophocles' Antigone: Tragedy and Athenian Civic Life