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Notes on video lecture:
Sophocles' Antigone: Tragedy and Athenian Civic Life
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
5th, defray, shape, acoustics, political, Pericles, young, myth, dead, priest, problem, contests, support, Cadmus, instructive, limits, spring, Dionysus, weeping, fathers, morality, ritual, Acropolis, Lenaia, theatron, millennia, dilemma, Epidaurus, permission, danced, festivals, Sophocles, entertainment, cartoons, Thebes, skene, free, medal, sons, tensions, Eteocles, crimes, four, Oedipus, alone, tension, prosperity, scary, winter, vote
the Greek theater in        century BC
today we see theater as                           , something like television or movies
in 5th century Athens, theater, particularly tragic theater, was central to cultural,                   , civic life
early history is hard to define
but always connected to             
always connected to the god                 
god of wine,            changing, masks
seems to have evolved from choric                 
men singing for honorific prizes
by the 5th century, tragedy involved the entire community
two great                    for drama
1.              [Λήναια]
primarily for comedy
took place in             
2. City Dionysia
tragedies
took place in             
was central in the city
south slope of the                   
a natural bowl in the geography
wooden benches
some kind of stage
probably rebuilt in Rome
parts of a theater
          
building behind the playing area that was originally a hut for the changing of masks and costumes
orchestra
where the chorus sang and             
choruses remained important throughout Greek tragedy
                
seating area
where the word theater comes from
theater in                   
in the Peloponnese
very well preserved outdoor theater
Theater of Dionysus in Athens
seated around 15,000
a good proportion of the population who could         
intended audience was the         , adult male
based on various historical evidence, it is likely that at least some women, slaves, and foreigners in attendance
relatively few actors
three in developed tragedy
all male
all masked
when you are that far back in the theater, subtle face gestures couldn't be noticed, but what you had were beautiful                   
masks could be a identified easily
this is why you have cues in the tragedies, e.g. "I see that you are               "
today these kinds of cues are not necessary
in the Greek theater it was essential to know what was happening
all chorus members male
each year, three poets would compete in the tragic festival
found three wealthy citizens to              the expenses
10 citizen judges, one from each tribe
began with a processes
statue of Dionysus was brought in and put in prominent position
             of Dionysus would sit next to him
then judges and major officials
by the mid 5th century this procession also included procession of young men whose                had died in war the year before
they were celebrated and promised the                of the city
all 10 generals would convene, e.g.                 , reelected 17 years in a row
from 454 BC on, the actual treasure was carried across in the form of bars of precious           
the poets were celebrated, being public figures
we only have a small fragment of all plays produced
complete plays by only three playwrights
the function of the poems were to serve as an                        resource for the citizens of the city
the poets took their themes from         
1. especially Homer
2. also the myth cycle that centered on the city of             
the doomed house of               
the house of              and his offspring which included Dionysus (Semele was Camdmus' daughter and Dionysus mother, mated with Zeus to have Dionysus)
why in Athens at this time that this art form of tragedy developed so fully
The Tragic Moment
democracy was still very           , 50 years old
strains among the different factions
one-man-one-vote ideology
was coming in the                with the old values represented in the myths
the playwrights exploited these                  as they used their plays to consider issues
these are not like political                 
investigate and give us ways to think about some of the large issues in Athenian culture
Antigone by                   
first play on the theme of the House of Oedipus
one of the most revived plays in the Greek canon
Oedipus the great                solver
solved the riddle of the Sphinx: what walks on          legs in the morning, two at noon, and three in the evening
was not only the great problem solver but the great problem
committed two of the greatest              Greek could imagine: incest and paracide
exiled from Thebes
cursed his          in a battle against each other in which both are killed
Antigone begins on the day after that battle
the regent Creon, the loyal brother be                  [Ἐτεοκλῆς] be buried, but the attacking brother Polynices [Πολυνείκης] be unburied
Polynices' sister gives                      to give her brother burial
question the play posed
how does one connect to one's community
Antigone is loyal to a fault to her          brother
Creon, the new king, identifies himself with the community
it is not just that Antigone is right and Creon is wrong, no play is that simple-minded, nor is this some sort of                  play about individual vs. state, female vs. male, powerless vs. powerful, these are only subordinate elements as the Greek tragedians were far too sophisticated and far to skilled to write anything that mechanical.
instead, Sophocles has presented us with a                which has to be resolved and a variety of approaches to it
it does end up with Antigone being proven right, but at what cost?
the Sophoclean hero, again and again, is a character, in this case a woman, who takes a position and sticks to it no matter what cost to herself
by the end of the play Creon, the new king, is left utterly           , Antigone is dead, his own son Haemon is dead, his wife has killed herself, and what Creon has at the end is this lonely status of somebody who has come to wisdom through suffering
famous chorus line from Antigone: "Many are the things that are wonderful and           , but none so wonderful and scary as man." which is followed by a catalog of human achievements
but they also remind the audience and those who are reading it two                    later that there are things we don't have control over
in this way Sophocles was instructing his audience at a time when they were riding high, at a time of enormous                      in Athens
one of the morals we can take from the Antigone is that there are, after all,              on all of us

Vocabulary:

skene, n. [σκηνή] In ancient Greek theater, a building behind the playing area that was originally a hut for the changing of masks and costumes but eventually became the background before which the drama was enacted. First used c. 465 BC, the skene was originally a small wooden structure facing the circle of spectators. It developed into a two-story edifice decorated with columns, with three doors used for entrances and exits and the appearance of ghosts and gods; it was flanked by wings (paraskēnia). By the end of the 5th century bc, the wooden skene was replaced by a permanent stone structure. In the Roman theater it was an elaborate building facade. The modern concept of the theatrical scene, which is an integral and functional part of the play, evolved from the Renaissance. In the ancient theater the skene was merely a conventional background.  "You had a stage building called a skene, which had a low stage in front of what was a simple square building which could function in the play as anything from a cave to a palace."

Spelling Corrections:

paracideparricide

Ideas and Concepts:

From the places-to-visit department via this morning's Ancient Greek History class: "There is a beautifully preserved theater in the Peloponnese at Epidaurus built in the fourth century BC. One of the remarkable characteristics of this theater is the acoustics. If you sit in the highest seats, the figures of people on the stage appear tiny, but you can hear them perfectly. A common tour guide demonstration is to send their group up to the top row and then do something like drop a small coin or strike a match in the middle of the stage area, and sitting in the top row, you'll hear it as if it's next to your head, it's quite uncanny. The planning and construction of this theater is obviously an example of applied mathematics known by ancient Greek theater engineers."
On the importance of sophisticated theater in a healthy democracy via this morning's Ancient Greek History class:

"Why was it in Athens at this time that the art form of tragedy developed so fully? One argument often referred to as The Tragic Moment, is that Athen's democracy was still very young, 50 years old, and there were strains among the different factions as the society came into tensions with the old values represented by the conservative myths. Tragic playwrights exploited these tensions as they used their plays to consider issues that were important for their culture to consider and resolve.

The tragic plays were not like political cartoons or sarcasm, but were used to investigate and give Athenians ways to think about some of the large issues developing in Athenian culture. For instance, Antigone is loyal to a fault to her dead brother, while Creon, the new king, identifies himself with the community. It is not just that Antigone is right and Creon is wrong, no Greek playwright would be this simpleminded, nor was this some sort of morality play about individual vs. state, female vs. male, powerless vs. powerful, these were just subordinate elements, and the Greek tragedians were too sophisticated and skilled to write anything so mechanical.

Instead, Sophocles presents us both a dilemma which has to be resolved, as well as a variety of approaches to resolving it. The play does end up with Antigone being proven right, but at what cost? The Sophoclean hero, again and again, is a character, in this case a woman, who takes a position and sticks to it no matter at what cost to herself. But by the end of the play, Antigone is dead, Creon, the new king, is left utterly alone, his own son Haemon dead, Creon's wife commits suicide, and what Creon has at the end is this lonely status of somebody who has come to wisdom through suffering."
Hesiod's Creation Myth: Theogony
The Spartan Way of Life
600 BC Tyrants and Sages: Cypselus and Periander
800-700 BC: Athens Before Solon
Solon Against Political, Economic, and Moral Decline
Peisistratos: Tyranny and Civic Identity
The End of Athenian Tyranny and the Democratic Revolution
508 BC: The Democratic Reforms of Cleisthenes
Herodotus and The Histories
The First Persian War and the Battle of Marathon
Themistocles, Silver, and Greek Naval Policy
Xerxes and the Second Invasion of Greece
The Delian League
From Delian League to Athenian Empire
Pericles: Aristocrat, Orator and Democratic Citizen
Sophocles' Antigone: Tragedy and Athenian Civic Life