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Notes on video lecture:
The Spartan Way of Life
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
undocumented, change, Zeus, tribunate, charismatic, oral, utopia, Messenians, freedom, summary, fox, subordinates, political, discipline, hoplite, whips, abused, Apella, Lycurgus, Apollo, directions, revolutionary, Athena, scrutinized, hundreds, gruel, Ares, diarchy, Apollo, missions, young, citizens, trade, Constitution, clans, Hoplite, Phoebe, warrior, stories, icy, refuse, Kos, inequality, narrative
as with other ancient civilizations, what we have with Sparta are a number of                which we can try to turn into a coherent narrative
Lycurgus [ligh-KER-gus] (820BC-730BC)
established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of              at Delphi
The Rhetra [RAY-tra]
the Spartan                         , believed to have been formulated and established by the legendary lawgiver,                 .
Lycurgus said to have received this from the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi
since Lycurgus apparently forbade any written constitution, it was said to have been         
became the founding hero of the Spartan system, turning it into a kind of "military             "
in Homer, structure of government is king, council, and assembly which are represented in Sparta as well but very differently
1. king
in the rest of Greece, the king's duties and privileges were being given to other men in power
Sparta retained kingship, but there were two kings (              )
two leaders of            served together as kings
sons of two hereditary clans
were military leaders
could order a                execution on a battle field of a soldier who didn't perform well
2. council
in Sparta, council was called Gerousia (group of older men, 60 or older), thirty of them
3. assembly
called Damos, but when they were called together they were called the             
voted by acclamation, all opposed, pound on your shields
retained its primitive identification with the army
4. Ephors
only in Sparta
five of them
elected by the assembly
responsible for maintaining                      in the state
swore with king that they would both perform their duties, sign of tremendous social and political upheaval
similar to                    in Roman government, a permanent                            office that becomes a central unit in the state
unparalleled elsewhere in Greek world
Perioeci [pair-ee-OH-see]
people had their dwellings around the perimeter
free but certianly not                 
managed            with outside world
"a remarkably                          group"
Helots [HEE-lots]
massive group
descendants of the original                      who had been conquered by the Spartans
forced into a kind of servitude
treated always and only as                         
were made to were dog-skin caps as a sign of their low status
they could be              by any Spartan
had to provide agricultural labor
kept in line by a state terrorism
what kind of community was this?
was it a kingship? sort of
was it an oligarchy? sort of.
was it a radical democracy? sort of.
was it a military utopia? sort of.
this system, as different as it was, as odd as it was, worked for                  of years
One thing for sure is that Sparta was a community that has delighted                    theorists throughout the ages.
Features of Spartan life
Agoge [ah-goh-GAY]
began at birth: it was                        by one fo the ephors, if it showed any signs of illness, weakness, or disability, the ephor could order that it be exposed to die
raised until the age of seven
Spartan girls were raised with boys up until adolescense, very different from rest of Greece
Spartan women had a notorious degree of                compared to other parts of Greece
ages 7-13
elementary education
exercise, dance, requires you to follow                     
ages 13-20
boys and girls separated
restricted to one garment
go barefoot
take daily baths in the        water of the Eurotus
taught obediance, disobediance punished harshly
fed on a notorious           , said to be made of pig's blood
expected to supplement this diet with stealing but if they were caught stealing they were punished. You can start to see where this si heading
story: boy steals       , hides under cloak, begins gnawing but he keeps it covered and secret until he drops over dead from his wounds and becomes an emblem of virtue in the face of suffereing.
age 20
full-scale                training
citizen solider, Sparta had become a Hoplite Republic
training was rigorous and violent and emphasized the idea of the utter dedication of the individual to the state
age 30
those who made it through applied to Syssitia, an eating club
given an allotment of land worked for them by helots which they had to keep under control
krypteia [krip-TAY-ah]
best fighters were sent out on secret                  at night to kill helots, would target those which were big, strong or                       
helot threat was different than in the rest of Greece since helots had an ethnic identity, they were all Messenians
homoioi [ha-MOY-yoy]
the "like ones", peers
warriors who were given equal tracts of land
goddess Artemis
both hunter and               
sister of             
one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities
Roman equivalent Diana
daughter of          and Leto
daughter of the Titans Coeus and              and the sister of Asteria
island of        is claimed as her birthplace
Zeus is the father of her twins: Apollo and Artemis
Hera in her jealousy had caused all lands to shun her, so she looked for a place to give birth to her twins Apollo and Artemis
protector of            girls, childbirth, virginity
compare:          symbolized negative aspects of war such as anger and hatred, while              represented positive aspects such as strategy and combat.
shrine of Artemis Orthia
Artemis has a bird dead clutched in each hand
a site of testing for Spartan youths
cheeses were piled up and guarded by men with           , the hungry boys were expected to try to steal them and endured blood-drawing blows to get to the food
Herodotus (484-425)
Father of History
first historian known to collect materials systematically, test accuracy to a certain extent, and arrange them in a well-constructed and vivid                   
one work: The Histories
wrote about the Spartans
a kind of Utopia
limited area
pure population
utter devotion of citizen to community
marshal valor
resistance to             
makes it a kind of never, never land
a response to many of the stresses of the archaic age
legally or ideologically outlawed
make it the basis of your state
long hair
going into battle they would comb out their long hair
a society that was admired, scrutinized, and never imitated
From Plato's Laws, the anonymous Athenian says to his Spartan companion: One of the best laws you have is that citizens were forbidden to inquire into the relative merits of the laws, everyone has to agree with one heart and voice that they are excellent, and if anyone says differently, the citizens must absolutely              to listen to them.' Welcome to Sparta."
Hesiod's Creation Myth: Theogony
The Spartan Way of Life
600 BC Tyrants and Sages: Cypselus and Periander
800-700 BC: Athens Before Solon
Solon Against Political, Economic, and Moral Decline
Peisistratos: Tyranny and Civic Identity
The End of Athenian Tyranny and the Democratic Revolution
508 BC: The Democratic Reforms of Cleisthenes
Herodotus and The Histories
The First Persian War and the Battle of Marathon
Themistocles, Silver, and Greek Naval Policy
Xerxes and the Second Invasion of Greece
The Delian League
From Delian League to Athenian Empire
Pericles: Aristocrat, Orator and Democratic Citizen
Sophocles' Antigone: Tragedy and Athenian Civic Life