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C O U R S E 
The Ancient Greeks
Andrew Szegedy-Maszak, Wesleyan University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
From Delian League to Athenian Empire
Notes taken on September 18, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
allies requested that Athens take over the leadership of the voluntary confederation the Delian League
main goals of the Delian League
1. defense against Persia
2. equality and autonomy for all members
3. annual contributions from each member-state
Athens was first among equals
had the conditions set up to come to dominate
Athenian ability to build and man these ships reflects the democratic presence of free labor
slave labor, not slave labor
Athens had many men who were able and willing to do this kind of work
gave them an advantage over other states
Athens between Persian War and Peloponnesian War with Sparta
almost all states are either islands or on the coast
year-round presence of the fleet was a new condition for warfare
what happens next is difficult to disentangle
Thucydides: The Peloponnesian War
a compressed account of what happened between Persian and Peloponnesian wars
leaves out many important issues
literary evidence
the Athenian tragedians
later writers
personable, skillful Athenian general
Persians had been preparing to put together a new attacking force
469-466 Cimon leads a fleet to Eurymedon, south coast of Turkey
wins a smashing victory
467 BC island of Naxos decided to leave the league
perhaps thought the Persian threat was not significant anymore
had contributed ships rather than money
the Athenians surround Naxos with league ships
annual contributions were changed from ships to cash
in North Aegean, island of Thasos
Archilochus described with such distaste
"bristling like a donkey's back, what an ugly island"
465 BC Athenians get into quarrel into island fo Thasos regarding access to some rich gold mines on the mainland
a kind of private quarrel, heavy handed by Athens
Thasos appeals to Sparta for help
Spartans had been watching Athenian military growth and movements with alarm
Spartans seemed to help
464 BC huge earthquake in Sparta
helots rebelled
used disruption of earthquake to fight for their freedom
ironically, the Spartan asked the Athenians to come help them against the uprising
Cimon sent help to Sparta as a former ally of Athens
troop of 4000 hoplites sent to help Sparta, however, was sent home
Sparta perhaps worried about Athenian democratic proclivities
Cimon forced to go back, was an insult to him
462 BC Pericles
engineered a reform with Ephialtes [Ἐφιάλτης]
early leader of the democratic movement
oversaw reforms that diminished the power of the Areopagus, a traditional bastion of conservatism
461 BC Cimon ostracized
he had been pro Sparta
free Delian league becomes a collection of Athenian-dominated, tribute-paying allies
Athenian tribute lists
mid 450s: Athenians moved the treasure from Delos to Athens
kept meticulous records of how much each state paid each year
allows us to tract relations within the league
Athens tended to support democratic factions
exercised legal control
trials had to be held in Athens even if they involved citizens from a league state
economic control
controlled trade with their navy
forced league states to use Athenian coins, weights, and measures
psychologically and economically significant
established colonies, or cleruchy
not same as colonies in archaic age of Greece
meant to be Athenian outposts constantly in contact with and beholden to the mother city
political, legal and economic control
major events during this era
478 BC: foundation of Delian League
469-466 BC: Battle of Eurymedon, Cimon victor
467 BC: attempt at secession by Naxos
465 BC: Athens vs. Thasos
464 BC: Spartan earthquake and helot revolt
462 BC: reform of the Areopagus
461 BC: Ostracismof Cimon
460-445 BC: First Peloponnesian War
460 BC: Athenians allied with the state of Megara
strategically very important
Corinthians were outraged
formed alliances with Peloponnesian states
no major battles
a series of bloody and inconclusive skirmishes
Athenian domination over the League was getting more complete
resistance to Athenian domination by Corinth and Thebes mounting
emerged in Athens one of the most powerful leaders: Pericles