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Notes on video lecture:
Medieval Chant Notation
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Guidonian, monestary, standardize, gestures, shape, religious, note, gemstones, sing, heights, wrote, traditions, exact, drawings, Miélot, colored, Christianity, started, six, ear, rhythm, diversity, Domine, oral, melodies, unity, Catholic, joints, singing, scriptoria, monk, large, clefs, prayers, syllables
as                          spread throughout Europe in the 300s and 400s CE
singing songs and hymns became part of worshop in                  church
text was regularly chanted and set to different                 
different churchs developed had different musical                     
even chants that were intended to be the same ended up with slight variations as they were passed from one generation to another over            areas
the Church eventually felt there was too much                   
not enough           
needed a way to carry this out
could no longer rely on memory and          transmission
neumes
the first step in solving this problem
Latin for "                "
provide a reminder for the melodic           
but they don't indicate pitches and there was no indication of             
they merely indicated if the melody went up or down or stayed the same
the specific melodies still had to be taught by       
but the neumes provided a reminder of the melodic shape
900-1000 AD
these neumes began to be placed at relative                which indicated interval size
in some musical manuscripts, the author would draw a horizontal reference line, so that the heightened neumes could be interpreted relative to that line
these lines were eventually marked as F and C and eventually evolved into our modern           
melody shape was still not completely clear and there was no indication of rhythm
Guido of Arezzo (991-1033)
was a         
came up with a system of four lines and three spaces, using                lines for F and C
eventually get expanded to our modern five-line staff with four spaces
neumes were then fixed on a line or a space, which for the first time, represented an            pitch
this was revolutionary because it allowed a singer to learn how to sing a verse without having heard it before, which was called sight reading and sight               
created                    of notes
he developed new techniques for teaching, such as staff notation and the use of the "ut–re–mi–fa–so–la" (do–re–mi–fa–so–la) mnemonic syllables which are taken from the initial syllables of each of the first        half-lines of the first stanza of the hymn "Ut queant laxis": (1) Ut queant laxīs, (2) resonāre fībrīs, (3) Mīra gestõrum, (4) famulī tuõrum, (5) Solve pollūtī, (6) labiī reātum
didn't name B right away
Ut eventually changes to Do, probably for the word             
hexachords
arrangements of six notes
one that                on C
one that started on G
required a B-natural (square)
one that started on F
required a B-flat (rounded)
                   hand
a mnemonic device used to assist singers in learning to sight-        
teachers would point to different              and fingers and have their students sing the intervals
musical manuscript production
Jean                           , 15th century
writing music into manuscripts was a regular part of living in a                   
special rooms called                      were dedicated to manuscript production
creating a manuscript was part of the                    experience of being in a monestary
               were said as you entered the room
monks were able to meditate on the text as they            it down
elaborate                 , sometimes for a single letter
ornate borders
leather bindings with metals and                   
Gregorian chants
written and recorded into manuscripts for hundreds of years in order to                        the music service in the Catholic Church to prevent variation over time
there was still a problem of rhythm
go back 1000 years and go back this simple system of neumes which are marks that show the pitch with no concept of meter, measures, time signature, or even a specific indication of rhythm for a given         

Vocabulary:

neume, n. [noom] the basic element of Western and Eastern systems of musical notation prior to the invention of five-line staff notation, these were marks above the text which provided a reminder of the melodic shape  "The Medieval Catholic church eventually felt there was too much diversity in the chants from church to church and needed a way to standardize the chant melodies and prevent variations in order to enforce more conformity and unity of music, as they could no longer rely on memory and oral transmission within the great expanses of lands which the Church now influenced, and the introduction of neumes were the first step in solving this problem"

People:

Guido of Arezzo (991-1033)
Italian music theorist regarded as the inventor of modern musical notation, or staff notation, that replaced neumatic notation
  • his text, the Micrologus, was the second-most-widely distributed treatise in the Middle Ages, after the writings of Boethius
  • was a monk of the Benedictine order from the Italian city-state of Arezzo
  • his early career was spent at the monastery of Pomposa, on the Adriatic coast near Ferrara, where he noted the difficulty that singers had in remembering Gregorian chants and developed methods for them to better memorize the chants
  • after moving to Arezzo, he developed new techniques for teaching, such as staff notation and the use of the "ut–re–mi–fa–so–la" (do–re–mi–fa–so–la) mnemonic syllables which are taken from the initial syllables of each of the first six half-lines of the first stanza of the hymn "Ut queant laxis": (1) Ut queant laxīs, (2) resonāre fībrīs, (3) Mīra gestõrum, (4) famulī tuõrum, (5) Solve pollūtī, (6) labiī reātum

Ideas and Concepts:

Medieval mnemonic via tonight's Western Music History class: "In Medieval music, the Guidonian hand was a mnemonic device used to assist singers in learning to sight-sing. Some form of the device may have been used by Guido of Arezzo (991-1033), a medieval music theorist who wrote a number of treatises, including one instructing singers in sightreading. The idea of the Guidonian hand is that each portion of the hand represents a specific note within the hexachord system, which spans nearly three octaves from "ut" to "la", in other words, from the G at the bottom of the modern bass clef to the E at the top of the treble clef. In teaching, an instructor would indicate a series of notes by pointing to them on their hand, and the students would sing them. This is similar to the system of hand signals sometimes used in conjunction with solfege, e.g. the Do-Re-Mi scale."
15th century Gregorian chant via tonight's Western Music History class: "O filii et filiae is a Christian hymn celebrating Easter as commonly found in hymnals today, comprised in twelve stanzas. The hymn was very popular in France, whence it has spread to other countries. The triple Alleluia is sung by one voice, is repeated by the choir, and the solo takes up the first stanza with its Alleluia. The choir then sings the triple Alleluia, the second stanza with its Alleluia, and repeats the triple Alleluia. The alternation of solo and chorus thus continues, until the last stanza with its Alleluia, followed by the triple Alleluia, is sung by one voice. It is scarcely possible for any one to imagine the jubilant effect of the triumphant Alleluia attached to apparently less important circumstances of the Resurrection. It seems to speak of the majesty of that event, the smallest portions of which are worthy to be so chronicled."
Ancient Musical Notation
Medieval Chant Notation
Polyphony
Ars Nova, New Rhythm in the 14th Century
Musical Terms and Notation
The Baroque Era (1600-1750)
18th Century Baroque Improvisation
The Bach Family and the International Style of Baroque