837
Lectures Watched
Since January 1, 2014
2300+ courses starting
in September 2017
Peruse my collection of 271
influential people of the past.
View My Class Notes via:
Receive My Class Notes via E-Mail:

VIEW ARCHIVE


Contact Me via E-Mail:
edward [at] tanguay.info
Notes on video lecture:
The Baroque Era (1600-1750)
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
dance, Cassiano, contrapuntal, 1750, violin, instrumental, fear, Monteverdi, Galilei, 72, cousins, Daphne, emotions, weddings, Lully, London, misshapen, negative, overwrought, thinkers, Renaissance, monody, boundaries, Apollo, Purcell, bowing, Henry, euridice, Medici, recitative, ornate, melodic, Camerata, adventurous, operatic, drama, interludes, Shakespeare, Allemande, Venice, ballet, orchestra, 18th, Greek, ornamentation
the Baroque era
roughly from 1600 to         
it takes time and some distance to understand the                      of an era
the mid 18th century
so the Baroque era didn't receive its name until mid          century
at first it had a                  meaning
the style known as Classical music was being established
the simple, singable melodies that we associate with Haydn, Mozart, and later Beethoven
critics who preferred the newer, simpler style compared it to complex,                          style of Bach and the music of the 17th century
they call this music "Baroque"
the word itself is French and literally means "                   pearl"
with regard to music, it's meant to convey the idea that the music from that time was somehow exaggerated, irregular,                       , and overdecorated
19th century
"Baroque" took on a positive meaning
critiques and audiences came to appreciate the earlier music as             , dramatic and expressive
painting and sculptures now depicted people in action or in motion as opposed to simply standing or posing in one position
in literature, think of the high drama in                       's plays or the rise of operatic stories
even the new style of architecture conveyed this new idea of drama
key elements in Baroque
not just music but painting, sculpture, architecture, literature was its focus on           
in painting
often depicted people in action or motion, as apposed to simply standing or posing
in literature
the high drama in Shakespeare's plays
the rise of                  stories
in architecture
statues, paintings and ornamentation conveyed drama
music was valued for its ability to move the affections or emotions of the listener
sadness, joy, anger, love,         
experiencing a range of emotions in a single piece of music brought one's soul into a more stable state which promoted better physical and mental health
unlike the Romantic era and later
Baroque composers were not expressing their personal feelings or emotions through their music
they were expressing the range of emotions found in the text or in a story, or simply a range of contrasting                 
a time of national styles
each country developed its own sound and composition techniques
the music of the                        which comes before and Classical which comes after, were international
Baroque in Italy
Florentine                 
a group of                 , scientists, poets, and musicians
hosted by the count of Florence, Giovanni de' Bardi and Vincenzo                and others
purpose of group was to discuss and shape trends in literature, science and the arts which included music
researched and discussed the role of music in ancient            tragedies
from these discussions they created what we know today as opera, including concepts such as
aria = vocal solo
                     = vocal passage in which singing resembles speech
[res-ih-tah-TEEV]
first operas
1598             
by Jacopo Peri (1561-1633)
1600 L'                
by Jacopo Peri
aria and recitative affected all genres of music
instrumental
religious
1607 Claudio                     , "L'Orfeo"
took opera to a new level
through 17th century, opera expanded from Greek tragedies
mythology
comedy
epic stories
audiences were drawn to famous soloists singing the most popular arias
costumes and sets grew more                       
this made opera the most popular genre of the Baroque
Baroque in France
French developed a different style of Baroque than Italy
influenced heavily by
1.           , specifically ballet
2. the reign of King Louis XIV
reigned for almost      years
known as Sun King after             
god of sun, music, poetry, and science
spent money on arts
funded court             
established the Royal Academy of Dance and Music
used this as propaganda
large ensembles
24 Violins of the King
by 1670s became known as                   
Jean Baptiste           
[loo-LEE]
actually from Florence
came to France in 1646 at the age of 14
Italian tutor for one of the king's               
appointed the court composer of instrumental music
charged with creating a new kind of French opera different than Italian opera
refined and elegant                           
French overtures with their majestic rhythms
strict and known for instilling discipline in his orchestra
demanded uniform             
all bows in a string section must move up and down at the same time
his orchestras were very popular
this discipline was modeled in other orchestras
to convey his power to his orchestra
he conducted with a staff which he banged on the floor
often based on dance
4 or 5 dances of contrasting tempos, meters, and styles were often collected into a suite, e.g.
                  : moderate tempo in 4
followed by a Courante in 3
a slow, dignified dance in 3
followed by a fast dance in 6/8
dances were stylized
ornamentation were such that you could no longer actually dance to it
minuet
a social dance of French origin for two people, usually in 3/4 time
chaconne
used as a vehicle for variation on a repeated short harmonic progression, often involving a fairly short repetitive bass-line (ground bass) which offered a compositional outline for variation, decoration, figuration and                invention
Baroque in England
music was supported in Italy by strong cities and churches, e.g. in Rome and             
in France music was supported by King Louis the XIV
in England the support for music was not as strong
weakened monarchy
relatively short periods of            VIII's children in the 16th century
English Civil War (1642–1651) that even ended the monarchy for a short time
a few composers attempted to develop an English style
Henry                (1659-1695)
1688 Dido and Aeneas [DIGH-doh and ah-NEE-us]
an opera
prologue and three acts
George Friedrich Händel (1685-1759)
1712 moved to London
blended Italian opera with elements of French and English styles
wrote over 40 operas in London before switching his focus to oratorios, e.g. the Messiah in 1741
opera was never as popular with the              public as it was in Italy and France
masques
England had what one calls masques, which were more collaborative performances, not unified in plot or style
also semi-operas
spoken plays with musical                     
public concerts and publications
the only viable way that professional musicians could make a living
how music in the Baroque was funded
support for music in the Baroque
royal courts
city governments
churches
wealthy families, e.g.             
Baroque marked a shift in who paid for music
began to be shaped by the public
1637 first public opera house in San                 
1672 first public instrumental concert in London
the exanding middle class began to decide what was popular and what was not by the power of buying tickets
people had a high demand for new music rather than music of the past
each important church day, parties,                 , etc.
it was expected that there would be new music composed for that occasion
very few vocal works were performed for more than a year or two
                         music lasted a few decades, usually as long as the composer was alive
a large amount of music was produced because of the demand
             was the most popular singing genre
accompanied solo singing, arias
it was the easiest way to understand the text
showed off the talents of the singer
             became the most popular instrument
composers would write specifically for soloists
example of this is the "Ciaccona" from Johann Sebastian Bach's Partita for Violin No. 2

Vocabulary:

theorbo, n. [thee-OHR-bow] a plucked string instrument of the lute family with an extended neck and a second pegbox, developed during the late sixteenth century in Italy, inspired by the demand for extended bass range instruments for use in opera developed by the Florentine Camerata and new musical works utilizing basso continuo, i.e. the accompanying part of a musical piece which includes a bass line and harmonies  "Accompanying instruments could be lute, chitarrone, theorbo, harpsichord, organ, and even on occasion guitar."

People:

Jean Baptiste Lully (1632-1687)
[loo-LEE]
  • Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France, considered a master of the French baroque style
  • came from Florence to France in 1646 at the age of 14 to be the Italian tutor for one of the king's cousins, and became a French subject at age 30
  • appointed the court composer of instrumental music
  • charged with creating a new kind of French opera different than Italian opera, refined it with elegant ornamentation and created French overtures with their majestic rhythms
  • strict and known for instilling discipline in his orchestra, e.g. demanded uniform bowing in which all bows in a string section must move up and down at the same time
  • Lully's music is known for its power, liveliness in its fast movements and its deep emotional character in its slower movements
  • some of his most popular works are dance movements found in many of his works such as Armide or Phaëton

Ideas and Concepts:

Original derogatory meanings learned in this morning's History of Western Music class: "The Baroque era of music extended roughly from 1600 to 1750. It takes time and some distance to understand the boundaries of an era, and in this case it wasn't until the mid-18th-century that Baroque received its name. At first the word had a negative meaning, as the style known as Classical was already being established:the simple, singable melodies that we now associate with Haydn, Mozart, and later Beethoven. Eighteenth century critics who preferred the newer, simpler style of Classical music compared it to the more complex, contrapuntal style of Bach and the music of the 17th century as "Baroque", a French word that literally means "misshapen pearl" which, with regard to music, meant to convey the idea that the music from that period was exaggerated, irregular, overwrought, and overdecorated."
Via this morning's History of Western Music: "Unlike music from the Romantic era and later, Baroque composers were not expressing their personal feelings or emotions through their music. They were expressing the range of emotions found in the text or in a story, or simply a range of contrasting emotions. Music was valued for its ability to move the affections or emotions of the listener:sadness, joy, love, fear. It was believed that experiencing a range of emotions in a single piece of music brought one's soul into a more stable state which promoted better physical and mental health."
Hitherto unknown musical genre, via tonight's History of Western Music class: "monody, n. a solo vocal style distinguished by having a single melodic line and instrumental accompaniment, specifically a type of Italian song of the early 17th century, developed out of an attempt by the Florentine Camerata (a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence) to restore ancient Greek ideas of melody and declamation:one solo voice sings a melodic part, usually with considerable ornamentation, over a rhythmically independent bass line. Accompanying instruments could be lute, chitarrone, theorbo, harpsichord, organ, and even on occasion guitar."
Significant groups of the Renaissance via this morning's History of Western Music class: "The Florentine Camerata, known also as the Camerata de' Bardi, was a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Count Giovanni de' Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama. While propounding a revival of the Greek dramatic style, the Camerata's musical experiments led to the development of the stile recitativo, a style of delivery in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms of ordinary speech. In this way it facilitated the composition of dramatic music and the development of opera. Members included Vincenzo Galilei, the father of the astronomer Galileo Galilei."
Baroque entertainment genre of the day via this morning's History of Western Music class: "In the 17th century, opera was never as popular with the London public as it was in Italy and France. What was quite popular in England, however, were masques, which were more collaborative performances, not unified in plot or style, but more of a form of festive courtly entertainment that flourished in all of Europe but was especially popular in England. A masque involved music and dancing, singing and acting, within an elaborate stage design, in which the architectural framing and costumes might be designed by a renowned architect, to present a deferential allegory flattering to the patron. Professional actors and musicians were hired for the speaking and singing parts, but occasionally kings, queens, and other high-ranking people of the court might themselves would take part in the performances."
Ancient Musical Notation
Medieval Chant Notation
Polyphony
Ars Nova, New Rhythm in the 14th Century
Musical Terms and Notation
The Baroque Era (1600-1750)
18th Century Baroque Improvisation
The Bach Family and the International Style of Baroque
Bach's Monumental Chaconne
The Classical Era (1750-1815)