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Notes on video lecture:
The Bach Family and the International Style of Baroque
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Preludes, prolific, international, Germany, Verzeichnis, Händel, transferred, cappella, string, father, melodies, Kapellmeister, changes, Lutheran, propaganda, 300, Thirty, religious, theory, eight, workman, Mathew, compositional, Thomasschule, Telemann, clavichord, Protestantism, court, Art, composition, fugue, Italy, Ambrosius, Schneider, city, Johann, countries, Vivaldi
the Baroque period in               
delayed behind France and Italy due to the              Years' War (1618-48)
a struggle between Catholicism and                           
much of the country was destroyed
territories were                       
land was divided into more than        independent cities and territories
late 17th and early 18th century
some of Baroque's leading composers came from Germany
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
George Frideric                        (1685-1759)
Georg Philipp                  (1681-1767)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
musical styles in Germany
unlike musicians in            and France, German composers would
study, copy, and arrange the music from different                   
travel throughout Europe learning and blending different                            styles in new ways
this turned the national style of the Baroque to the                            style of the classical period
German opera
a combination of Italian and French styles
opera was popular in Germany
the center was Hamburg
1678 the first public opera house
Reinhard Keiser (1674-1739)
the most                  opera composer
over 60 operas performed in Hamburg
Johann Adolph Hasse (1699-1783)
there were two different styles of church music
concerted style
instrumental accompaniment
Bach family
used choral and instrumental
single line melody set to a Lutheran text
four part vocal arrangement of those same                 
two kinds of professional musicians in Germany
worked for royalty
princes, dukes
imitated Louis XIV use of the arts as                     
hired court instrumentalists
singers and composers
not quite as many as the French
included the town piper
usually could play many different wind and              instruments
would apprentice and take an audition to take the job
unless the family was passed down through a family, as was the case for the Bach family
controlled music of a city
in Lutheran towns, controlled music in the churches
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
proud of his family's heritage
1735: The Origin of the Musical Bach Family
tracing the origin of 53 family members
Bach learned from his             
Bach taught his oldest sons
Wilhelm Friedemann Bach
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (CPE Bach)
they taught their youngest brother              Christian Bach (JC Bach)
most of the musicians in the Bach family were town pipers, or church musicians
Johann                    Bach
violinist and trumpet player
was in the town council in Eisenach, Germany
he had his wife had            children
Johann Sebastian was the youngest
wife died in 1694 and Johann died in 1695
made Johann Sebastian an orphan at the age of 10
JS Bach moved in with his cousin Johann Christoph Bach
learned to play the                     
learned the styles of many countries
recognized early as a good musician
awarded choir boy scholarship near Hamburg
at 18 embarked on career
concert meister at the court of Weimar
learned about Vivaldi
arranged               's concertos for keyboard
it's a great way to learn the style of a composer, trying to arrange their music for another instrument
1707 married Maria Barbara Bach
actually a second cousin
had seven children
four survived to adulthood
1717-23                            at Court of Köthen
1720 Maria died
1721 met and married Anna Magdelena
professional soprano
together they raised the children from his first marriage and had 13 children of their own from 1723 to 1742, seven of whom died at a young age
didn't write much about himself or music             
not much is known about him as a private citizen
clearly a                    man
dedicated his life to serving his religion through his music
1723 Cantor of the                          zu Leipzig
most prominent and highest paying position
remained here until his death in 1750
didn't travel much
according to his contract, he couldn't leave the city without permission from the mayor
held in high esteem
but he wasn't concerned with fame or being remembered after his death
little of his music was published
toward the end of his life, his music was considered old-fashioned
as the newer, simpler styles were becoming more popular
he didn't perform music by composers who came before him
didn't intend for people to play his
his music forgotten until Mendelssohn's revival of his St.              passion in 1829 in Berlin
Bach's works
main job throughout his life was as an organist and composer for churches
also taught                       
gives us insight into his compositional process
encouraged his students to write away from the keyboard
think about what you have to say
rarely made any significant                to what he wrote
didn't consider himself a genius, but rather a capable                simply carrying out his duties
but many do recognize Bach as a genius, especially when it comes to counterpoint
the study of consonance and dissonance
composed in every genre except opera
cantatas, oratorios, and passions contained many of the same elements of opera
his genius can be seen most clearly in the mastery of the           
he had the ability to create themes and motives, even ones that contrast each other on the surface that fit perfectly when played together
cataloged in the Bach Werke                        (BWV)
compiled in 1950 by Wolfgang                   
first section
200+ cantatas
second section: Keyboard works
preludes and fugues for organ
inventions (short compositions developing a single theme contrapuntally)
48                  and Fugues for the Well-Tempered Clavier
Goldberg Variations
third section
suites for solo cello
sonatas and partitas for violin
fourth section
6 Brandenburg Concertos
The        of the Fugue (unfinished)

Spelling Corrections:


Ideas and Concepts:

18th century baroque discovery via tonight's History of Western Music class: "Johann Adolph Hasse (1699-1783) was a composer, singer and teacher of music who mostly resided in Hamburg. Immensely popular in his time, Hasse was best known for his prolific operatic output, though he also composed a considerable quantity of sacred music. Like many of his works, his Oratorio "Sanctus Petrus et Sancta Maria Magdalena" is heart-piercing music, especially the duets. His music, religious or not, can be enjoyed as a respite from Bach's highly disciplined works. In Hasse's works you will find that spark of human adventurism, be it worldly or spiritual, which enables new discoveries."
16th century Christmas music, via tonight's History of Western Music class:

"O Magnum Mysterium is a six-part motet by Giovanni Palestrina, based on the responsorial chant of the same name, and was written for the celebration of Christmas.

The piece is intended to express the joy and awe that was felt by the shepherds as they celebrated and worshiped the Christ-child in the manger on Christmas eve.

The text is in Latin and refers to the Bible's story of Christ in the manger. It was specially chosen as a celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ from the Virgin Mary and to illustrate God’s grace and mercy to sinners.

Palestrina wrote this motet during times when complaints were being made about the plainness of religious works, and he wrote it as a response against the complaints, furthering the bounds of complexity by writing the choral composition for six parts."
On the genius of Bach, via tonight's History of Western Music class: "Many recognize Bach as a genius, especially when it comes to counterpoint, i.e. the study of consonance and dissonance. His genius can be seen most clearly in the mastery of the fugue. He had the ability to create themes and motifs, even ones that contrast each other on the surface that fit perfectly when played together. Bach, however, didn't consider himself a genius, but rather a capable workman simply carrying out his duties."
Ancient Musical Notation
Medieval Chant Notation
Ars Nova, New Rhythm in the 14th Century
Musical Terms and Notation
The Baroque Era (1600-1750)
18th Century Baroque Improvisation
The Bach Family and the International Style of Baroque
Bach's Monumental Chaconne
The Classical Era (1750-1815)