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Notes on video lecture:
Ars Nova, New Rhythm in the 14th Century
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
division, no, whole, Renaissance, Vitry, triplets, perfection, context, 14th, weak, threes, syncopation, durations, combinations, complex, mixed, rhythmic, relative, exact, duple, minims, semibreves
at the beginning of the          century
there was finally a system of musical notation which
showed            pitches
but durations were                 
music before this had been rhythmically grouped always into             
same note shape could be given two or three beats, but depending on               
Philippe de           
credited with creating the ars nova
Latin for "new art"
the last line of his treatise is "This is the new art."
ars nova is a name for the era of music in the 1300s
innovations in notation
breaking with the idea of a "                    ", i.e. that music needed to be grouped into threes
allowed for several levels of                 
breves could be broken into groups of two or three                     
semibreves could be broken up into 2 or 3 smaller units called minims
a radical shift
for the first time, note                    were fixed
and no longer confined to groups of three
breve = double whole note
semibreve =            note
four distinct time signatures or meters
9/8 time signature
breve into 3 semibreves into 9 minims
this is like three groups of                  which wasn't such a big change from what had come before
if a breve is divided into three semibreves, as before, but each breve is divided into only two             
a new feature of ars nova
3/4 signature
if a breve is divided into only two semibreves, and each breve into three minim
this gives us a 6/8 signature
sounds like two groups of triplets
not a big change
but if a breve is divided into only two semibreves, and each breve into only two minims
this gives us a 2/4 signature
a completely new sound
the most radical of all new time signatures since there were      groups of three at all
the real innovation is fixed note shapes
notes were no longer relative
both triple and            meter (2/4) are possible
                       is possible for the first time
the shift of a musical accent in which emphasis is given to          beats instead of strong beats
since note shapes retain their                  value regardless of the context
allowed composers to exploit                          of rhythm
some of the most                music was composed during this time
combining syncopations,            meters, and different voices and meters at the same time
without this new notation, the innovations that occurred in the                        would not have been possible

Spelling Corrections:


Ideas and Concepts:

Pre-renaissance revolutionary musical style via tonight's Western Music History course: "ars nova, n. (Latin:"new art") was a period of the tremendous flowering of music in the 14th century, particularly in France. It opposed the Ars Antiqua of 13th-century France, and was the title of a treatise written in 1320 by the composer Philippe de Vitry, the most enthusiastic proponent of the movement. Ars nova allowed notes to be written with greater independence of rhythm, shunning the limitations of the rhythmic modes which prevailed in the thirteenth century, developed new techniques and forms such as isorhythm (a fixed pattern of pitches with a repeating rhythmic pattern), the overall aesthetic effect of these changes being to create music of greater expressiveness and variety than had been the case in the thirteenth century. This sudden historical change with its new degree of musical expressiveness can be likened to the introduction of perspective in painting."
Hitherto unknown musical notation via tonight's Western Music History course:

"breve, n. a note lasting two times as long as a whole note. In 1320, the French composer Philippe de Vitry began the era of music known as the "ars nova" by defining, among other things, a radical shift in representing the length of a musical notes.

Breaking with the idea of a ternary ("perfect"), a mandatory group into threes notes, he created a new base unit of note length, called a breve. Each breve could be broken up into 2 or 3 semibreves and each semibreve could be broken up into 2 or 3 minims, which gave composers new time signatures or meters to organized their music.

These terms have persisted until today, where a breve is a double whole note, a semibreve is a whole note, and a minim is a half note. Because it lasts longer than a bar in most modern time signatures, the breve is now rarely encountered. However, in time signatures where the top number is exactly twice that of the bottom, such as 4/2 or 8/4, it lasts a whole bar and so may still be found."
Ancient Musical Notation
Medieval Chant Notation
Ars Nova, New Rhythm in the 14th Century
Musical Terms and Notation
The Baroque Era (1600-1750)
18th Century Baroque Improvisation
The Bach Family and the International Style of Baroque
Bach's Monumental Chaconne
The Classical Era (1750-1815)