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Notes on video lecture:
Musical Terms and Notation
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
ephemeral, 1000, minute, minor, naturals, duration, composers, volume, rhythmic, quarter, French, Stravinsky, staff, pianissimo, tenuto, metronomes, measure, ukulele, bar
notation has developed dramatically in the past          years
half note = 72 Rhythmico
number refers to beats per             
i.e. 72 half notes per minute or 114 quarter notes per minute, which is pretty fast
the tempo is very important and can be found on all standard                      in use since Beethoven's time
clef sitting on the           
e.g. treble clef used for violin music or anything else that is higher in pitch such as the
soprano voice
clef is from              and means key
the clef is the key to reading the notes that are on the staff
key signature
sharps, flats and                  are called accidentals
they alter written pitches higher and lower
e.g. two sharps
means either D major or b           
3/2 on the staff tells us that there are three half notes on this               , which we call the meter
the meter remains until it is changed
the top number indicates the number of beats per       
bottom number indicates the                  value
a 2 means a half note
if it were a 4 on the bottom, the beat would be felt in                notes
if it were an 8 on the bottom, the beat would be felt in 8th notes
a great deal of music is in 4/4 or 3/4
the meter is just a way that                    group rhythms together into bars
some pieces change meters quite a bit
check out                     's Rite of Spring if you want to see some remarkable meter changes
letters that control             
p = piano, or soft
f = forte, or loud
pp =                     , or very soft
mf = mezzo forte, or moderately loud
Giovanni Gabrieli (1557–1612)
credited as the first to use dynamics in his music
marks that affect duration and the way the note is sounded
solid line
means             , Italian for "to hold, to emphasize"
hold a note for its full duration, or to emphasize the note
small dot
play the note short and not for its full                 
play the note lightly
there is room for interpretation
how loud is loud
how short is short
there are also                    aspects of music that can't be notated
a wonderful aspect about the performance of music

Ideas and Concepts:

Via this morning's Western Music History class:

"In music theory, the circle of fifths is a geometrical representation of the relationships among the 12 tones of the chromatic scale (each tone a semitone above or below another), their corresponding key signatures, and the associated major and minor keys. In musical pieces from Baroque, Classical and Western popular music, when pieces or songs modulate to a new key, these modulations are often associated with the circle of fifths.

The concept of the circle of fifths was first proposed in the late 1670s in a treatise called Grammatika written by Nikolai Diletskii, composer and theorist of Ukrainian nationality, active in Russia. Diletskii's Grammatika is a treatise on composition, the first of its kind, which targeted Western-style polyphonic compositions. It taught how to write kontserty, polyphonic a cappella, which were normally based on liturgical texts and were created by putting together musical sections that have contrasting rhythm, meters, melodic material and vocal groupings. Diletskii intended his treatise to be a guide to composition yet pertaining to the rules of music theory. Within the Grammatika the circle of fifths was used for students as a composer's tool."
Via this morning's Western Music History class: "If you want to see some remarkable meter changes, check out Stravinsky's Rite of Spring."
Via tonight's Western Music History class: "The ukulele is an instrument of peace because if everyone played the ukulele, this world would be a much happier place, and as proof, we give you Queen's Bohemian Rhapsody on the ukulele."
Ancient Musical Notation
Medieval Chant Notation
Ars Nova, New Rhythm in the 14th Century
Musical Terms and Notation
The Baroque Era (1600-1750)
18th Century Baroque Improvisation
The Bach Family and the International Style of Baroque
Bach's Monumental Chaconne
The Classical Era (1750-1815)