More notes at http://tanguay.info/learntracker
C O U R S E 
Western Music History through Performance
Jonathan Coopersmith, Curtis Institute of Music
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Medieval Chant Notation
Notes taken on November 30, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
as Christianity spread throughout Europe in the 300s and 400s CE
singing songs and hymns became part of worshop in Catholic church
text was regularly chanted and set to different melodies
different churchs developed had different musical traditions
even chants that were intended to be the same ended up with slight variations as they were passed from one generation to another over large areas
the Church eventually felt there was too much diversity
not enough unity
needed a way to carry this out
could no longer rely on memory and oral transmission
the first step in solving this problem
Latin for "gestures"
provide a reminder for the melodic shape
but they don't indicate pitches and there was no indication of rhythm
they merely indicated if the melody went up or down or stayed the same
the specific melodies still had to be taught by ear
but the neumes provided a reminder of the melodic shape
900-1000 AD
these neumes began to be placed at relative heights which indicated interval size
in some musical manuscripts, the author would draw a horizontal reference line, so that the heightened neumes could be interpreted relative to that line
these lines were eventually marked as F and C and eventually evolved into our modern clefs
melody shape was still not completely clear and there was no indication of rhythm
Guido of Arezzo (991-1033)
was a monk
came up with a system of four lines and three spaces, using colored lines for F and C
eventually get expanded to our modern five-line staff with four spaces
neumes were then fixed on a line or a space, which for the first time, represented an exact pitch
this was revolutionary because it allowed a singer to learn how to sing a verse without having heard it before, which was called sight reading and sight singing
created syllables of notes
he developed new techniques for teaching, such as staff notation and the use of the "ut–re–mi–fa–so–la" (do–re–mi–fa–so–la) mnemonic syllables which are taken from the initial syllables of each of the first six half-lines of the first stanza of the hymn "Ut queant laxis": (1) Ut queant laxīs, (2) resonāre fībrīs, (3) Mīra gestõrum, (4) famulī tuõrum, (5) Solve pollūtī, (6) labiī reātum
didn't name B right away
Ut eventually changes to Do, probably for the word Domine
arrangements of six notes
one that started on C
one that started on G
required a B-natural (square)
one that started on F
required a B-flat (rounded)
Guidonian hand
a mnemonic device used to assist singers in learning to sight-sing
teachers would point to different joints and fingers and have their students sing the intervals
musical manuscript production
Jean Miélot, 15th century
writing music into manuscripts was a regular part of living in a monestary
special rooms called scriptoria were dedicated to manuscript production
creating a manuscript was part of the religious experience of being in a monestary
prayers were said as you entered the room
monks were able to meditate on the text as they wrote it down
elaborate drawings, sometimes for a single letter
ornate borders
leather bindings with metals and gemstones
Gregorian chants
written and recorded into manuscripts for hundreds of years in order to standardize the music service in the Catholic Church to prevent variation over time
there was still a problem of rhythm
go back 1000 years and go back this simple system of neumes which are marks that show the pitch with no concept of meter, measures, time signature, or even a specific indication of rhythm for a given note