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Notes on video lecture:
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
multiple, dissonances, Organum, contours, three, Garlandia, fifth, neumatic, singers, chant, held, improvised, monophonic, single, improvise, 1250, longer, Cologne, ligatures, effects, pauses, tempus, flow, motion, improvised, perfection, polyphony, Cantorum, Measurable, down, magistri
one of the biggest issues with                  notation is that it doesn't show rhythm
there's a          to a chant
some notes are held              than others
sometimes it speeds up
sometimes it slows down
sometimes there are             
it was a learned art, you had to get the feel of knowing the standard way to employ these               
chant in the Catholic Church was officially                     
a              line of music at a time
but it's likely that musicians in the Middle Ages experimented with                   
                 lines of music at a time
probably                      based off of the written chant
school of               
were given a specific written           
most of the singers would sing the written chant
there would be a few people who would be able to                    below or above the written line
these improvisations were the first experiments in polyphony
a simple          note below the musical line of the chant
from treatise in the 800s
singing in a parallel line to a given chant
e.g. a second person would sing the same chant up a perfect           , or up an octave
Similar Organum
two lines moving together in similar             
followed the same                  of a music line, moving like a school of fish
Contrary Organum
one voice would go up while the other voice goes         
there were complicated rules that followed because there were only certain consonances and                        were allowed
all of this was                     
so it took quite a musical mind to think of the right consonances and dissonances in real time
Notre Dame in 11th and 12th centuries
         a system of notation that would indicate rhythm
Johannes de                   
French music theorist
for the first time in over 1000 years, standard rhythm was notated
"Synonoma                 "
concerning measurable music
came up with various combinations of neumes linked together called                   
six rhythmic modes
basic unit of time was called a             
a tempus always got one beat
there always had to be groupings of three beats together
two kinds of notes: a long and a breve
obvious problems
only six rhythmic modes
doesn't give a lot of freedom
Franco of               
composer and music theorist
created a new system of notation
"The Art of                      Music"
create note shapes that directly indicated rhythm
music was still grouped in threes called a                     
each voice could not have unique shape and unique rhythmic pattern
the limitation was the music always had to be grouped in groups of           , or perfections

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Ideas and Concepts:

The invention of rhythm via tonight's Western Music History class: "In the 13th century, it had been over 1000 years since any musical notation had defined standard rhythm. In 1250, Johannes de Garlandia, a French music theorist, in his work "Synonoma magistri" or "Concerning Measurable Music", developed a notation which proposed various combinations of neumes, the musical notation prior to the invention of five-line staff notation. There were various rhythmic modes, and the notation of these modes was accomplished through showing ligatures, or graphic symbols that told the musician to perform two or more notes in a single gesture, and on a single syllable, each ligature having a varying length and with varying degrees of complexity."
Ancient Musical Notation
Medieval Chant Notation
Ars Nova, New Rhythm in the 14th Century
Musical Terms and Notation
The Baroque Era (1600-1750)
18th Century Baroque Improvisation
The Bach Family and the International Style of Baroque
Bach's Monumental Chaconne
The Classical Era (1750-1815)